Metodichna rozrobka 3 kurs


УКРАЇНСЬКА ДЕРЖАВНА БУДУВЕЛЬНА КОРПОРАЦІЯ
КРИВОРІЗЬКИЙ БУДІВЕЛЬНИЙ КОЛЕДЖ
Методична розробка
з дисципліни: ,,ІНОЗЕМНА МОВА’’
на тему :
,,ТЕКСТИ З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ ЗА ПРОФЕСІЙНИМ
СПРЯМУВАННЯМ’’
спеціальності:06.010101
,,БУДІВНИЦТВО ТА ЕКСПЛУТАЦІЯ БУДІВЕЛЬ ТА СПОРУД’’
Складено в допомогу студентам ІІІ курсу усіх видів спеціалізацій
денної та заочної форми навчання



м. Кривий Ріг
ЗМІСТ
Unit I Buildings of Architectural Interest
THE HISTORY OF BUILDING……………………………………….4
THE HOTEL "ROSSIYA"……………………………………………...5
UNITED NATIONAL BUILDINGS…………………………………..5
THE MANEGE…………………………………………………………6
MOSCOW'S TELEVISION CENTRE………………………………….6
PAUL'S CATHEDRAL IN LONDON………………………………7
NO SKY-SCRAPERS NOW……………………………………………..8
Unit II Builder`s work
INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING METHODS………………………….8
SOME BUILDING PROFESSION……………………………………....9
CONSTRUCTION WORK…………………………………………….10
PARTS OF A BUILDINGS…………………………………………10
FOUNDATION ………………………………………………………..11
Unit III Building Materials
BUILDING MATERIALS …………………………………………….11
BUILDING MATERIALS IN THE HOT CLIMATE ZONES ……..12
THE SINGL-STOREY SYRUCTURE ………………………………..13
SILICATE INDUSTRY…………………………………………..........13
BRICK………………………………………................................................14
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE…………………………………………………………….15
PLASTICS ALL OVER THE WORLD………………………………….16
FOAMED GLASS………………………………………………………16
PLASTICS FROM ITALY……………………………………………...17
TIMBER FOR BIG STRUCTURES………………………………….17
Unit IV Engineering Components
ENGINEERING COMPONENTS…………………………………………18
THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL ORNAMENTAL SURFACE
PANELS …………………………………………………………………19
TESTING OF MATERIALS……………………………………………..19
Unit V Construction in Abroad
BUILDING AT SEA………………………………………………………20
BUILDING ON PERMAFROST …………………………………………….21
METRIC SYSTEM IN THE USA…………………………………………..22
MECHANICAL HANDLING ON CONSTRUCTION SITES…………………..23
SELF-ERECTING TOWER CRANE GCI 5400………………………………………….23
GLOSSARY……………………………………………………………………………….25


ПЕРЕДМОВА
Питання про роль навчання іноземній мові в технічних закладах залишається одним з серйозних і той же час найбільш проблемних в сучасній методиці викладання іноземної мови. Насамперед сучасна методична розробка повинна бути комунікативно і професійно спрямована . Засвоєння мовленнєвого та граматичного матеріалу є основою успішної участі майбутніх спеціалістів ситуаціях професійного та ділового спілкування, які вимагають знання іноземної мови. Високий рівень професійної компетенції спеціаліста досягається наявністю у нього набора професійних знань та вмінь. Англомовні вміння та навики успішно реалізуються у складі комунікативної компетенції лише тоді, коли вони відповідають професійним вмінням.
Дана методична розробка спрямована для студентів ІІІ курсу денного та заочного форм навчання. Складається з п’яти розділів, які містять тексти за професійним спрямуванням з вправами після кожного тексту, для ліпшого закріплення слів та словосполучень та словника. Тексти для читання також рекомендовані для переказу.

Unit I Buildings of Architectural Interest
THE HISTORY OF BUILDING
Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in today. In hot countries people made their homes in the trees and used leaves to protect themselves from ruin or sun. In- colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later people left their caves and trees and began, to build houses of different materials such as mud, wood or stones.
Later people found out than bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt especially, people learned the use of these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.
The ancient Egyptian discovered how to cut Stone for building, purposes. They erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The greatest tomb is the stone pyramid of Khufu King of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge buildings without thinking of their usefulness.
The ancient Greeks also understood the an of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration. Parts of these ancient buildings can still be seen today in Greece.
During the last hundred years many new methods of building have been discovered. One of the most recent discoveries is the usefulness of steel- as a building material.
Nowadays When it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of art is first built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone and much stronger than they are.
EXERCISES
I.Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences:
1.People first lived in... (a) houses, b) palaces с) trees or caws). 2. Egyptian pyramids are made of... (a) Stone, b) wood, c) bricks). 3. The cheapest building material is ... (a) wood, b) bricks, c) concrete. 4. The ancient Greeks knew the art of building with (a) Steel, (b) stone, c) concrete. 5. Nowadays very tall and huge buildings are made of... (a) steel and concrete, b) bricks, c) Stone).
II.Complete the following sentences:
1. The ancient Greeks used pillars for partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration. 2. We usually make houses of ... 3. Bricks are made of.... 4. The ancient Egyptians made their homes of....
III.Answer the following questions:
I. Where did people live many thousands of years ago? 2. Did ancient people use wood or bricks to build their houses? 3. What kinds of buildings did the ancient Egyptians erect? 4. What did the ancient Greeks use pillars for? 5. Is steel used as a building material? 6. What kinds of building materials do you know?
IV.Translate the text into Russian into using в dictionary:
Relics of Wooden Architecture.
The carpenters of the ancient Russian city of Novgorod were famed for their skill! Carpenters and builders, they erected peasant homes, fortress walls and towers, windmills, churches, chapels and even palaces. They built thousands of villages and a large number of (owns mainly with axes. In olden times practically all the buildings in Novgorod were made of timber. Relics of the carpenters skill- an of truly folk origin have been preserved to our days. To establish the artistic worth of old structures a close study is made of all that is left and of books and even legends passed on from generation to generation.
The rich finds led to the decision to collect and put in one place all the more valuable works by unknown architects of the Novgorod area.

THE HOTEL "ROSSIYA"
"Rossiya" (Russia) is the name of one of the biggest and most comfortable modern hotels in Moscow. It was designed by a group of architects under Dmitry Chechulin in 1967. The hotel stands on Moskvaretskaya Embankment, in the centre of the city. This is an interesting district with' many unique examples of architecture of the 15th- to 18th-centuries buildings in the Russian classic style. Red Squire, the ancient Kremlin and St. Basil's Cathedral are close by there.
The hotel is a twelve-storeyed building with a central part rising to 22 storeys. There are four blocks—nothern, southern, eastern and western. The hotel has more than three thousand rooms and suites, and can accommodate about six thousand people. Express lifts from all floors take guests up to the flat roof, which affords a wonderful view of Moscow. There are two cinemas with 750 seats each and a cinema-concert hall to seat 3,000. The auditorium and the stage may be adapted for many purposes; one may see a ballet, folk dancing, entertainments of all kinds or hear a concert. The hall can be used for congresses, it is suitable for receptions and can even be used for various types of sports competitions. The inner courtyards with their shade, their flowers, trees and shrubs are isolated from the city noise by the high walls of the building.
The hotel includes two excellent restaurants seating 1.000.The various cafes, bars, banquetting halls, buffets canteens together with the restaurants can serve 4.500 persons simultaneously. The cinema-concert hall, cinema, restaurants and rooms have air conditioning. The hotel rooms are singles and doubles; there are also two-, three-, four- and five-room suites. The furniture is modern, the decorations—ramies, textiles, engravings, prints and water colours are in the traditional Russian style. The hotel has a parking place.
EXERCISES:
I. Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences.
1.The hotel "Rossiya" stands ... (a) in the centre of Moscow, b) on the outskirts ofMoscow).2.The hotel "Rossiya" is surrounded by ... ( a) modern buildings, I oldbuildings). 3. The cinema-concert hall in the hotel "Rossiya" can be used ... (a) only for film-showing and concerts, b) for all purposes). 4. The hotel decorations are in ..(a) various styles, b) traditional Russian style).
II.Complete the following sentences:
1. The hotel "Rossiya" stands on .... 2. This Moscow district has many unique examples of.... 3. The central part of the hotel "Rossiya" rises to . 4. The flat roof of the hotel affords a wonderful view of.... 5. Sports competitions can be held in ... .
III. Answer the following questions:
1.Where does the hotel "Rossiya" stand? 2. Is the hotel Rossiya" a tall building or not? 3. How many rooms and suites are there in the hotel? 4. What kind of rooms and suites are they? 5. Which hall in the hotel can be used for sports competitions?
UNITED NATIONAL BUILDINGS
The United Nations Headquarters in New York is a group of building set in beautifully landscaped grounds. At night, from across the East River it seems to float on a platform of light above the shining water.
Some people consider it a brilliantly planned, superbly executed example of functional design; some call it an architectural monstrosity. But all agree that the buildings have the striking beauty of their own. The different buildings of the group, each individually distinctive in design, are closely associated stylistically and functionally.
The Secretariat Building is one of the most remarkable structures in the world. The building is 505 feet high. It has 39 storeys above ground and several below. It is 289 feet long. The windows are set in aluminium frames. The blue-green glass of the windows is of a special composition to permit a maximum of light with a minimum of heat. The ends of the building are entirely of marble from Vermont, 2,000 tons of it. It is connected at various levels with the other buildings.
The Conference Building contains a wide range of facilities: three large council chambers, each containing about 400 public and 120 press seats. There are also several big committee rooms, the main delegates' lounge and a restaurant.
The General Assembly Building and the Auditorium. This building is of curious double concave shape. Its chief function is to provide a suitable meeting hall for the annual Assembly meeting. The great auditorium is 380 feet long, varies from 160 feet wide on the south to 220 feet on the north. It seats 920 delegates and advisers, 1,000 visitors, 420 press representatives.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
1.Where is the United Nations Headquarters situated? 2.How many storeys has the Secretariat Building?3.What kind of glass was used for the windows of this building? 4. What facilities does the Conference Building contain? 5. What shape is the General Assembly Building of?
II.Complete the following sentences:
1. This group of buildings is set in... . 2. These buildings are individually distinctive in ... 3. The glass of windows is of special composition to permit ... 4. The ends of the building are of.... 5. The Secretariat Building is connected with ... .6. The chief function of the General Assembly Building is to provide…
III.Read and translate the following word combinations:
brilliantly planned; a remarkable structure; above ground; below ground; a maximum of light; a special composition; a minimum of heat; entirely of marble.

THE MANEGE
The Manege (Manezh) is a building in Moscow, standing on the square on the western side of the Kremlin. Officially, it is called now the Central Exhibition Hall.
The Manege was built in 1817 for parades and the training of the Moscow garrison cavalry, and as a memorial of Russian victory in 1812. So it had to be one of the largest and most attractive buildings in the city.
Its project was worked out by General Bethencourt. The walls of the building were 166.1X44.7 m long. There is not a single internal support. The roof rests on crosswise timber rafters (a canopy).
Architect Bove, who did a lot to restore Moscow, ornamented the building with strong half columns and decorated the walls with stucco moulding. The building was completed in 6 months and won praise from all. Contemporaries wrote that there was "nothing anywhere in Europe that had such architectural grandeur or such an original roof". Many engineers have made a study of the roof, which has been described in many building textbooks. Its architecture still gladdens the eye by its harmony, classicism and simplicity.
In the 19th century the Manege became a major cultural centre in the city. It was used for architectural, agricultural, scientific, technical and ethnographic exhibitions. In 1908 the building was used for the first international exhibition of cars, bicycles and sports equipment.
The finest musicians in Russia and Europe, including Hector Berlioz, have played at gala concerts at the Manege building. On December 27,1867, Berlioz conducted a choir and orchestra of 700 there, playing his own music and that of Russian composers, before an audience of 12,000.
In 1957 the Soviet Government decided that the Manege should be turned into a Central Exhibition Hall. Since then it has housed many art exhibitions which attract over a million visiters a year.
EXERCISES
1. Answer the following questions:
1.Where does the Manege building in Moscow stand? 2.When was this building built? 3. What was the Manege built for? 4. Who worked out the Manege project? 5. What can you say about the roof of this building? 6. What is the Manege used for now?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations:
not a single internal support; cross-wise timber rafters; a major cultural centre; for architectural and technical exhibitions; its architecture still gladdens the eye
III.Translate the following sentences:
1. This building has been described in many building textbooks. 2. There is not a single internal support for the roof. 3. The architecture of this house gladdens the eye by its simplicity. 4. In 1957 this building was turned into an exhibition hall. 5. This is a memorial of Russian victory in 1812.

MOSCOW'S TELEVISION CENTRE
In the north of Moscow, and visible for miles around, rises the giant reinforced concrete tower of the Moscow's TV centre. The tower was built in 1968 to a design by D. Burdin, M. Shkud and L. Shchipakin. Altogether 533-m high, the TV tower has an observation platform and a restaurant at the height of 328 metres. The restaurant revolves slowly round the tower and offers a splendid circular view of Moscow. Despite its enormous size the tower seems amazingly light. It replaced the old iron-girder tower in Shabolovka Street, built by the engineer I. Shukhov shortly after the Great October Socialist Revolution. Yet, unlike its predecessor, this TV tower does not play a purely functional role but is at the same time a most important architectural landmark. The multistory building of the TV centre stands alongside the tower.
I.Answer the following questions:
1. What is the TV tower in Moscow made of? 2. Who designed the building of the TV centre? 3. What is the height of the Moscow TV tower? 4. What tower did this TV tower replace? 5. What stands alongside the TV tower in Moscow?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations:
giant reinforced concrete tower; visible for miles around; enormous size; a most important architectural landmark; a purely functional role; multistory building; to stand alongside
III.Translate the text using a dictionary:
Environmental Wind Problems Around Buildings.
The rapid increase in height of city office buildings in recent years has resulted in a number of environmental problems. One of these problems is unpleasant wind conditions in pedestrian areas. Such phenomena must be avoided. Wind tunnels, specially prepared to produce the characteristic of natural wind, have played an important role in predicting wind problems around buildings. There is an urgent need for architects to give serious consideration to wind effects around the buildings.
PAUL'S CATHEDRAL IN LONDON
Si. Paul's Cathedral stands on the site of former Saxon and Norman churches. The latter were destroyed in the Great Fire in 1666 and the present building completed in 1710. is the work of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wien. Londoners have a particular affection for St. Paul's. The 110-meter high dome, containing a remarkable Whispering Gallery, is a prominent landmark towering above the many-storeyed buildings which lines the Thames bank,
Christopher Wren was an architect who had built many buildings. In 1675, he started on his greatest work. For 35 years the building of St. Paul's Cathedral went on. and Wren was an old man before it was finished.
From far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The inside of the cathedral is very beautiful. After looking around, you can climb 263 steps to the Whispering Gallery, which runs round the dome. Il is called so because if someone whispers close to the wall on one side, a person with an ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said. Then, if you climb another 118 steps, you will be able to stand outside tut dome and look over London.'
But not only can you climb up. you can also go down underneath the cathedral, into the crypt. Here are buried many great men, including Christopher Wien himself.
EXERCISES
I.Answer the following questions:
1.What was Christopher Wren? 2. How long did it take lo build St. Paul's Cathedral ? 3. What is the height of the building ? 4 What kind of a gallery does this cathedral contain? 5. What is the acoustic phenomenon of the gallery?
II. Translate the ten into Russian using a dictionary:
London has an indefinable character and charm of its own. In this historic city the modern rubs shoulders with the old. The first mayor of London was elected in 1193 but for more than a thousand years before that London had been the place of importance. London survived the Plague which killed nearly 100.000people and the Great Fire which followed. Little damage occurred during World War I, but World War 1 brought tremendous destruction. Many buildings of great historic value were laid in ruins and today the face of London is changed.


NO SKY-SCRAPERS NOW
You cannot easily build towers without altering the landscape and dwarfing historic buildings. That is the problem not only for London but for other cities and other countries. It is a problem to which there is no solution, as we well know.
You cannot, on the other hand, enable a city to grow into the twentieth century without giving it twentieth-century features. The banks, insurance companies, and great export houses need their buildings. But tourists, Britain's greatest invisible export, come to see Westminster Abbey, not Millbank Tower. If you disturb London's character too much, they may not come at all.
The balance of opinion at present is against tall buildings. They are said to be inconvenient not only for the flat dweller but even for the business community.
Businessmen are setting their new offices in spots where it is possible to spread horizontally. Tall buildings efface the traditional landscape in a way which lower-pitched buildings would not. There has been a definite check to high buildings in Britain. The tendency now is towards the low-rise, high-density layout which can house an equal number to the acre without subjecting them to the frightening isolation of the high-flat dweller. It achieves this by making maximum use of the available ground (putting car parks underground) and interspersing moderate-sized blocks with maisonettes and little houses set in pocket-small gardens.
This is said to be more convenient for the inhabitants. The surveys that have been taken indicate that between 8 and 10 per cent of people in medium-sized towns, and 10 to 15 per cent in cities, like living high up. Office builders would like to build upwards than are allowed to.
It is true that much high building is unnecessary and medium-height buildings could function equally well. In some cases, especially as regards the housing for children, it is undesirable. It is also a good deal more expensive.
But these are not the only considerations for a generation which wishes to stamp its ideals on the age. A new technology permitted men to build to the skies, and they could express themselves in no other way. A London skyline consisting of slim, elegant towers interspersed with the older monuments has something to be said for it. Clumsy skyscrapers must be condemned.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
I.Why is the problem of building skyscrapers so important for .the skyline of a city? 2. What proves the necessity of building horizontally? 3. What is the tendency now in building dwellings? 4. What is the percentage of citizens who like to live high up? 5 .In what cases is high building unnecessary? 6.What can be said about a London skyline?
II.Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences. Memorise them:
1. Britain's tourists come to see ... (a) modern skyscrapers, b) Westminster Abbey). 2. The balance of opinion at present is ... ( a) against tall buildings, b) against low buildings). 3. Tall buildings ... ( a) efface the traditional landscape in London; b) make the traditional landscape more beautiful).
III.Complete the following sentences:
1.It is impossible to build towers without... 2. High buildings are said to be ... .3. Skyscrapers efface ... .4. One can see the tendency now towards ... 5. It is clear that high buildings are inconvenient for ... 6. A London skyline consisting of slim elegant towers lias....
Unit II Builder`s work
INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING METHODS
Industrialised building means a high degree of pre-fabrication applied to domestic or other construction so as to reduce site work to a minimum. This involves careful planning, and a maximum of standardisation.
The quantity of factory work on the building components is highly increased so as to reduce the cost and improve the quality and speed of construction.
Large-panel construction is one of industrialised building methods which was first applied in the USSR. It consists of using reinforced concrete panels one or two storeys high, sometimes made of light-weight insulating concrete.
For large-panel timber walls which have been prefabricated for many years both in Europe and America, the term is not used.
EXERCISES
І. Answer the following questions:
1.What is meant by "industrialised building"? 2. What does this method involve? 3. How can the cost of construction be reduced? 4. Where was large-panel construction applied first? 5. What does the method of large-panel construction consist of?
ІІ. Read and translate the following word conbinations:
industrialised building methods; high degree of pre-fabrication; maximum of standardisation; to reduce site work; one or two storeys high; large-panel construction
III.Translate the following sentences:
1. A maximum of standardisation is needed to reduce site work to a minimum. 2. The up-to-date machinery is-used on construction sites. 3. Large-panel construction was first applied in the USSR. 4. A high degree of pre-fabrication is important for housing construction. 5. Prefabricated rooms and flats can be assembled into houses,
IV.Translate the text into Russian using a dictionary:
Tower Crane Remote Control Programming System
Tower cranes are used for assembling large-size prefabricated elements. In addition to hoisting and conveying they also perform the operation of placing the elements in accordance with the construction project. The programming control system is to accomplish this task. The crane fulfils this operation under the remote radio control of the warehouse scaffolder, on the one hand, and the main in charge of assembling, on the other.The operator's place is to be close to the job, where the elements are placed. Any crane engine may be switched on from the control panel. The delivery of prefabricated elements from warehouse is performed automatically. It requires only to press the "address" and program starting buttons. The automatic system provides the lifting of loads to a permissible height and takes the shortest route to deliver it to the assigned place at a minimum time. The use of control programming system ensures most favourable and safe operating conditions for all crane mechanisms. There is no need of a crane operator. The system in: creases the productivity of labour, reduces operating costs.

SOME BUILDING PROFESSIONS
A man, who has been an apprentice for some years in a building trade and has therefore enough skill to be considered a skilled worker at his trade, is called tradesman or craftsman.
He may be a carpenter-and-joiner, bricklayer, mason, slater-and-tiler, plumber, electrician, house painter, glazier, floor-and-wall tiler, plasterer, paper-hanger, steeplejack, hot water fitter and so on.
Bricklayer is a tradesman who builds and repairs brickwork, lays and joints salt glazed stoneware drains, sets, chimney pots, manhole frames and fireplaces. He renders brickwork, including the insides of manholes. A sewer and tunnel bricklayer is a specialised bricklayer. In some districts of Great Britain, bricklayers also fix wall and flooring tiles, and slating and lay plaster and granolithic floors. But elsewhere these are plasterer's specialities.
Carpenter is a man who erects wood frames, fits joints, fixes wood floors, stairs and window frames, asbestos sheeting and other wallboard. He builds or dismantles wood or metal formwork. The two trades of carpenter and joiner were originally the same, and most men can do both, but specialise in one or the other. In the USA the term "carpenter" includes a joiner. The word is derived from the French word charpente which means a wood or metal framework.
Joiner is a man who makes joinery and works mainly at the bench of wood which has beencut and shaped by the machinists. His work is finer than the carpenter's, much of it being highly finished and done in a joinery shop which is not exposed to weather. In Scotland a joiner is a carpenter-and-joiner.
Mason is a stone worker or stone setter. In Scotland and the USA a bricklayer is usually also a mason. A fixer or a fixer-mason or a builder mason is a mason who sets prepared stones in walls, wether the stone be only facing or to the full wall thickness.
Plasterer is a tradesman who may be a fibrous plasterer or a plasterer in solid work. The latter lays successive coats of plaster or rendering and fixes fibrous plaster such as mould cornices and wall pattern. He can use a horsed mould, erect lathing for plaster, and apply stucco.
EXERCISES
I.Answer the following questions:
1. Who is called a tradesman or a craftsman? 2. Whose trades were originally the same? 3. Whose work is finer; the carpenter's or the joiner's? 4. What kind of work does a plasterer perform?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations:
wood or metal formwork; exposed to weather; successive coats of plaster; wall pattern.
III.Translate the following sentences:
1.A bricklayer renders brickwork. 2. A bricklayer can fix wall and flooring tiles. 3. A carpenter erects wooden frames. 4. Joiner's work is done in a joinery shop. 5. A plasterer lays successive coats of plaster.

CONSTRUCTION WORK
The buildings erected nowadays can be divided into two general classes: buildings for housing and industrial buildings. As far as material is concerned buildings can be divided into brick, wood, concrete, and steel buildings. Brick is an artificial building material made of clay which is then burnt for hardening. Natural stone rubble masonry is used for footing and foundations for external walls carrying the load. Buildings made of stone are durable and fire-resisting. The floors divide a building into stories. They may be either of timber or in brick buildings, of reinforced and small sizes.
The covering or upper parts of buildings meant to and wind and to preserve the interior from expolosure to weather, are called roofs. They tie the walls and give the construction strength and firmness.
Every building must have a beautiful appearance. The interior should be planned to suit the requirements of the occupants while the exterior must be simple with nothing superfluous. Every building should be provided with water, electricity, ventilation and heating systems. The water supply and sewerage systems are called plumbing.
Careful consideration must be given to the amount of -money which is going to be spent in building the house. An estimate depending upon the design of the building must be calculated after which work on the building can be started.
I. Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences. Memorise them:
I.Artificial building materials are made ... ( a) of wood, b) of brick). 2. Buildings made of stone are...( a) indurable, b) durable). 3. The coverings or upper parts of the building are called ... (a) ceilings,b) roofs). 4. The exterior of a building must be ... ( a) with superfluous decorations, b) simple). 5.The water supply and sewerage systems are called ... ( a) heating, b)plumbing).
II. Complete the following sentences:
1.Building materials are divided into.... 2. The interior should be planned to suit... .3. Every building should be provided with .... 4. An estimate depending upon the design of the building must be calculated...
III. Answer the following questions:
1.Into what groups can the buildings be divided as far as material is concerned? 2. Of what material are the buildings built? 3. How should the interior be planned? 4. In what way should the exterior be planned? 5. What should every building be provided with? 6. What must be calculated first of all?
PARTS OF A BUILDING
Almost everyone saw the construction of a building and followed its progress with interest.
First the excavation is dug for the basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed; after this the framework is erected and clothed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.
The part upon- which the stability' of the structure depends is the framework. It is intended for safety carrying the loads imposed. The floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the building must be carefully designed and proportioned.
The architect or designer must decide, what the size of the walls, the floors, the beams, the girders and the parts which make up the framework will be and how they will be placed and arranged.
Here are the main parts of a building and their functions. Foundations serve to keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, to guard them against the action of frost to prevent them from sinking and settling which cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.
Floors divide the building into stories. They may be either of timber or of a fire-resisting material. Walls are built to enclose areas and carry the weight of floors and roofs. The walls may be solid or hollow. The materials used for the walls construction can be brick, stone, concrete and other natural or artificial materials.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
1. What is done first during the construction of a building? 2. What keeps the walls and floors from contact with the soil? 3. What are the floors for? 4. What do the walls of a building serve for? 5. Does the stability of a building depend on the framework?
II.Complete the following sentences:
1. The excavation is dug ... .2. The stability of the structure depends upon ... 3. The building is divided into stories by... . 4. The main parts of a building are....
III.Read and translate the following word combinations:
several coats of paint; stability of the structure; size of the walls; to keep the floors from contact with the soil; fire-resisting materials; natural and artificial materials

Foundation
Part of a structural system that supports and anchors the superstructure of a building and transmits its loads directly to the earth. To prevent damage from repeated freeze-thaw cycles, the bottom of the foundation must be below the frost line. The foundations of low-rise residential buildings are nearly all supported on spread footings, wide bases (usually of concrete) that support walls or piers and distribute the load over a greater area. Aconcrete grade beam supported by isolated footings, piers, or piles may be placed at ground level, especially in a building without a basement, to support the exterior wall. Spread footings are also used-in greatly enlarged form-for high-rise buildings. Other systems for supporting heavy loads include piles, concrete caisson columns, and building directly on exposed rock. In yielding soil, a floating foundation-consisting of rigid, boxlike structures set at such a depth that the weight of the soil removed to place it equals the weight of the construction supported-maybe used.

Unit III Building Materials
Building materials
1.Building materials are used in two basic ways. In the first way they are used to support the loads on a building and in the second way they are used to divide the space in a building. Building components are made from building materials and the form of a component is related to the way in which it is used. We can see how this works by considering three different types of construction:
2. In one kind of construction, blocks of materials such as brick, stone, or concrete are put together to form solid walls. These materials are heavy, however, they can support the structural loads because they have the property of high compressive strength. Walls made up of blocks both support the building and divide the space in the building.
3.In another type of construction, sheet materials are used to form walls which act as both space-dividers and structural support. Timber, concrete and some plastics can be made into large rigid sheets and fixed together to form a building. These buildings are lighter and faster to construct than buildings made up of blocks.
4. Rod materials, on the other hand, can be used for structural support but not for dividing spaces. Timber, steel and concrete can be formed into rods and used as columns. Rod materials with high tensile and compressive strength can be fixed together to form framed structures. The spaces between the rods can be filled with light sheet materials which act as space dividers but do not support structural loads.
Now say whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.
Rod materials can be used for both dividing space and supporting the building.
Concrete can be used as a block material, a sheet material and a rod material.
Steel is used for frame construction because it has high tensile strength and low compressive strength.
The sheet materials, which act as space dividers in a frame construction building, can be very light because they do not support structural loads.
Mass construction buildings are light whereas planar construction buildings are heavy.
Сomposite
Solid material that results when two or more different substances, each with its own characteristics, are combined (physically, not chemically) to create a new substance whose properties are superior in a specific application to those of the original components. The term specifically refers to a structural material (such as plastic) within which a fibrous material (such as silicon carbide) is embedded. Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic is the best-known composite. Because of their stiffness, lightness, and heat resistance, composites are the materials of choice in numerous structural, reinforcing, and high-performance applications.
Building materials in the hot climate zones
Cane and leaves are available in the warm-humid zones and grass in the intermediate and subtropical
zones. Vine, bamboo and palm-fronds are used for buildings in the warm-humid zones. Because these
materials are light, do not store heat, and allow the free passage of air, they are frequently used for
making roofs. However, they have a relatively short life span because they deteriorate rapidly due to
termite attack. They are also highly combustible.
Both hardwoods and softwoods are found in most tropical and subtropical areas with the exception of the hot dry zones. On external woodwork preservative stains should be used rather than paints which tend to deteriorate fairly rapidly in the hot zones. Extremes of climatic conditions cause dimensional changes producing cracks, splits and warping. Wind-blown sand and grit gradually erode exposed timber. In warm-humid zones timber is liable to wet and dry rot and to attack by termites and beetles.
Earth is one of the most widely used traditional building materials in hot-dry lands. Earth is used not only for walls but also for roofs; mud brick vaults and domes are common in countries like Iran and Egypt. Because mud has less strength than most other construction materials, mud walls are built thicker. Partly due to the thickness of mud walls and partly due to its low thermal conductivity, rooms built of mud are much cooler in hot climates than those of any other material. Mud bricks are brittle and do not withstand tension well. For this reason the vault and the dome were evolved in the East. There is a high risk of termite damage in some areas. Walls exposed to weathering and rain require frequent repair work.
Concrete and reinforced concrete are widely used throughout the non-temperate zones. Cement is manufactured locally in many places. Sand is found almost everywhere but it may be contaminated with soluble salts. Suitable aggregate may be difficult to find. Concrete is most frequently used for the structure, foundations and floor slabs of buildings. Care must be taken when using concrete for walls and roofs. Heat builds up on the exterior of concrete walls and roofs.
The single-storey structure
The single-storey structure consists of three frames. These frames are made up of steel stanchions and beams. The frames are placed between end walls and spaced at 3 metres centres. The stanchions carry the beams. These beams support the roof. The roof beams cantilever a short distance beyond the stanchions. This means that they extend over the profiled sheet steel cladding. The cladding can then be placed outside the line of the stanchions.
The beams are bolted to steel stanchion caps. The stanchion caps are welded to the top of each stanchion. The load on each beam is transmitted through these plates to the stanchions.
The upper face of the steel base plates and the ends of the stanchions are machined flat. The bottom of each stanchion is welded to a base plate. Each base plate is fixed to a concrete column base by two holding-down bolts.
Steel angles are fixed across the ends of the beams and built into the brick walls. These angles tie the frames together and also provide a place to fix the top of the cladding.
I.Now answer these questions:
How are the angles fixed to the roof beams?
How are the loads on a roof beam transmitted to the column bases?
What is the joint between a base plate and a column base filled with?
Why do the roof beams cantilever a short distance?

SILICATE INDUSTRY
The industry processing the natural compounds, of silicon is called the silicate industry. It embraces the production of cement, glass, and ceramics.
The production of ceramic goods is based on the property of clay when mixed with water to form a putty from which various articles can easily be moulded. When these articles are dried and then baked, that is, ignited at a high temperature, they become hard and retain their shape, no longer being softened by water. In this way clay mixed with water and sand is moulded into bricks, which are then dried and baked. The materials used to make silicate bricks are white sand and slaked lime.
Cement Production. Cement is made from limestone and clay, or from their natural mixture, marls. The materials roasted in cylindrical rotary kilns are charged into a slowly rotating kiln at its upper end and travel, mixing continuously, towards the lower end, while a current of hot gases, the products of the burning of fuel, flows in the opposite direction. During the period of their movement through the kiln the clay and the limestone react chemically, - and the material emerging from the kiln in lumps of a caked mass is cement, which is then ground. When cement is mixed with water, it forms mortar, which hardens, binding various objects, such as bricks or stones, very firmly. It is for this reason that cement is used widely as a binding .material in large-scale construction, including underwater construction. Cement is often mixed with sand or gravel, in which case we get concrete. Concrete has roughly the same coefficient of thermal expansion as iron.
Glass Production. The initial materials for the production of ordinary glass are mainly soda NaaCO}, limestone CaCC>3, and sand Si02. A mixture of these substances is heated in a bath-shaped furnace. When it cools, the liquid mass of glass does not become hard at once. At first it becomes viscous and readily assumes any shape. This property of glass is used in making various articles out of it. Definite portions of the cooling semiliquid mass are taken from the bath, and these are blown or pressed to make various glassware. By machine methods glass sheets, tubes, etc., can be drawn continuously from the molten mass.

EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the .name of the industry processing the natural compounds of silicon? 2. What materials are used for making silicate bricks? 3. What are the initial materials for getting glass? 4. How do we get concrete? 5. What is the difference between cement and concrete?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations:
natural compounds of silicon; production of cement; coefficient of thermal expansion; bath-shaped furnace; property of glass; to retain the shape; binding material
III.Translate the text using a dictionary:
Concrete Danger in Many Buildings.
Schools, offices, blocks, supermarkets, dance and bingo halls are among hundreds of buildings throughout the country in danger of collapse, a group of architects and structural engineers says in a report published recently in Britain. The report mentions a recent circular from the Department of the Environment which says that hundreds of buildings are at risk because the concrete they are made of could be unsafe.
BRICK
A brick is .best described as "a building unit". It may be made of burnt clay, of concrete, of mortar or of a composition of sawdust and other materials; in shape it is a rectangular solid and its weight is from 672 to 9 lb.
The shape and convenient size of a brick enables a man to grip it with an easy confidence and, because of this, brick-building has been popular far many hundreds of years. The hand of the average man is large enough to take a brick and he is able to handle mare than 500 bricks in an eight-hour working day.
It is necessary, therefore, far the "would-be" bricklayer to practise handling a brick until he can control it with complete mastery and until he is able to place it into any desired position.
By placing the hand over the surface of the upper part of a brick and by placing the thumb centrally down the face of the brick with the first joints of the fingers on the opposite face, the brick may be securely handled. It is necessary to protect the thumb and the fingers with leather pads which also prevent the skin from rough bricks.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
I.What materials is brick made of? 2. Why brick-building has been popular for many hundreds of years?3. What is the shape of a brick? 4. What is the brick's weight?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations :
the shape and size of a brick; with an easy confidence; the width of a brick; with complete mastery; to place a brick, into adesired position
III.Translate the following sentences:
1. A brick can be made of burnt clay. 2. Brick-building has been popular for many hundreds of years. 3. A "would-be" bricklayer must practise handling a brick until he can control it with complete mastery. 4- A bricklayer is able to place a brick into any desired position. 5. The bricklayer's thumb and the fingers must be protected with leather pads.
IV.Translate the text using a dictionary:
Rolling Stand. The stand fabricates large-size rolling stand structural products for residential, civic, industrial and farm construction, employing the vibration-rolling process. The recognized features of the stand are:
continuity of the production process;
versatility of the stand. It is capable of turning out both plain and ribbed products from common or lightweight (ceramsite) concrete in a wide range of sizes with minimum resetting at moderate cost;
high dimensional accuracy of large-size panels which is conducive to saving of labour and time on the site;
—homogeneous structure and invariably stable physico-mechanical properties of the product.
Dry components of the concrete mix are fed to a concrete mixer in predetermined amounts, using special feeders. In the mixer, the ingredients are mixed with water and the mix is poured in a continuous stream onto a moving moulding belt through a chute. For uniform distribution of the mix use is made of a concrete placer and the compacting operation is taken care of by a vibrator screed arranged under the belt. The surplus top layer of mix is removed by a vibrating shield arranged above the moulding belt and forming an integral part of the concrete placer, whereas the final sizing of the product for thickness and imparting it a smooth finish are the operations performed by a vibrating and floating unit arranged after the concrete placer. After sizing, the moulding belt brings the product into a steam chamber.
To prevent concrete from contacting steam in the chamber, a rubberized belting cover is applied to the top surface of the product while this is in the chamber. On leaving the steaming chamber, the product is automatically removed from the moulding belt and transferred onto a tippler by means of a roller conveyor. The tippler tilts up the finished product into the upright position and an overhead crane carries .it to a storage area. The key component of the rolling stand is the moulding belt which comprises a constantly moving endless apron_ conveyor provided with a drive and a take-up head. The carrying surface is formed by apron plates lightly fitting each other and supported by two stands of traction chains. The split-type formwork secured to apron plates is selected depending on the size and shape on the product bein fabricated.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Prestressed concrete is not a new material. Its successful use has been developed rapidly during the last two decades, chiefly because steel of a more suitable character has been produced.
Concrete is strong in compression but weak when used for tensile stresses.
If, therefore, we consider a beam made of plain concrete, and spanning a certain distance, it will at once be realized that the beam's own weight will cause the beam to sag or bend. This sagging at once puts the lower edge of the beam in tension, and if the crosssectional area is small, causes it to break, especially if the span is relatively large.
If, on the other hand, we use a beam of similar crosssection, but incorporate steel bars in the lower portion, the steel will resist the tensile stress derived from the sag of the beam, and thus assist in preventing if from breaking.
In prestressed concrete steel is not used as reinforce-ment, but as a means of producing a suitable compressive stress in the concrete. Therefore any beam ( or member) made of prestressed concrete is permanently under compression, and is consequently devoid of cracs-under normal loading, or so long as the elastic limit is not exceeded.
Prestressed concrete is not only used for beams but is now employed extensively for columns, pipes, and cylindrical water-towers, storage tanks, ets.
EXERCISES
I. Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences. Memorise them:
1.Prestressed concrete is ... ( a) a completely new building material, b) not really a new material. 2. The successful use prestressed concrete has been developed rapidly ... ( a) long ago, b) during the last two decades). 3. Plaint concrete is ... ( a) strong in compression, b) weak in compression). 4. Plaint concrete is ... a) weak when used for tensile stress, b) strong when used for tensile stress). 5. In prestressed concrete steel is used ... ( a)As reinforcement, b) as a means of producing a suitable compressive stress). 6. Pressed concrete is used ... ( a) only for beams, b) for beams, columns, pipes, ets).
ІІ. Complete the following sentences:
1.Plaint concrete is strong in ... .2. The sagging of a beam made of plaint concrete may cause it to ... . 3. Incorporated steel bars in the lower portion of a beam prevent. 4. A beam made of prestressed concrete is permanently under ... . 5. Prestressed concrete is now employed extensively for ... .
III. Answer the following questions:
1.Is prestressed concrete a new building material? 2. How long has prestressed concrete been used in construction? 3. What disadvantages has plaint concrete for? 5. What will happen if elastic limit of a beam is exceeded? 6. What is prestressed concrete used for?

PLASTICS ALL OVER THE WORLD
Nowadays plastics can be applied to almost every branch of building, from the laying of foundation to the final coat of paint.
A lot of decorative plastics now available has brought about a revolution in interior and exterior design. But plastics are used now not only for decoration. These materials are sufficiently rigid to stand on their own without any support. They can be worked with ordinary builders' tools.
Laminate is a strong material manufactured from many layers of paper or textile impregnated with thermosetting resins. This sandwich is then pressed and subjected to heat. Laminate has been developed for both inside and outside use. It resists severe weather conditions for more than ten years without serious deformation. As a structural material it is recommended for exterior work. Being used for surfacing, laminate gives the tough surface.
EXERCISES
I. Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences. Memories them:
1.Plastics can be applied ... (a) only in radio engineering, b) to almost every branch of building}. 2.Decorative plastics has brought about... (a) some advantages, b) a revolution in interior and exterior design). 3. Plastics are used ... (a) only for decoration, b) are sufficiently rigid to stand on their own without any support). 4. Laminate has been developed for ... (a) only inside use, b) only outside use, c) both inside and outside use). 5. Laminate is impregnated with ... (a) thermosetting resins, b) rubber). 6. The sandwich is pressed and subjected ... (a) to cold, b) to heat). 7. The laminate gives ... ( a) a mild surface, b) tough surface).
II.Answer the following questions:
1.Where can plastics be applied? 2. What advantages do plastics offer? 3. What can plastics be used for except decoration? 4. What does plastic material consist of? 5. What for is plastics recommended as a structural material?
FOAMED GLASS
Foamed glass is a high-porosity heat insulating material, available in blocks made of fine-ground glass and a frothing agent.
Foamed glass is widely used in prefabricated house building, to ensure heat insulation of exterior wall panels, and in industrial construction.
Foamed glass has a high mechanical strength, is distinguished by moisture, vapour and gas impermeability. It is non-inflammable, offers resistance to frost, possesses a high sound adsorption, and it is easily sewn and nailed.
Structural foamed-glass blocks designed to fill ceilings, and for making interior partitions in buildings and rooms, to ensure heat and sound insulation:
Volume mass, kg/m 150-250
Heat conductivity at 20±5° C, kcal/m-hr° Cup to 0.1
Block thickness, mm120
Heat-and-moisture resistant foamed glass used for heat insulation of surfaces at a service temperature up to 190° C:
Volume mass, kg/m1130-JSOu
Heat conductivity, kcal/m-hr °C0.045-0.055
Overall dimensions, mm300x300x80
Structural elements and goods of decorative-acoustic foamed glass designed to ensure interior sound proofing and decorative finish:
Volume mass., kg/m150-300
Sound absorption coefficient0.4-0.55
Overall dimensions, mm300x300x80
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
I.What is foamed glass? 2. Where is foamed glass used? 3. What are structural foamed-glass blocks used for? 4. What is the thickness of a structural block? 5. What are overall dimensions of decorative-acoustic foamA4 glass? 6. What is the heat conductivity of structural foamed-glass blocks?
II. Read and translate the following word combinations:
insulating material; prefabricated house-building; resistance to frost; a high sound absorption; to fill ceilings; to ensure heat insulation
PLASTICS FROM ITALY
"Colorplast" factory in Rovigo (Italy) manufactures three main products: panels, window frames and door frames.
The rigid, extruded polyvinylchloride (PVC) panels are made in a large range of sizes, suitable for every kind of use. They are very strong, indeformable and are extremely easy to assemble and disassemble. For this reason they are of particular interest to architects and builders.
The second group of "Colorplast" products are ready-to-mount window frames, made of rigid PVC. They are completely draught-proof, water-proof, fire-proof and sound absorbent, indeformable, easy to install, economic and do not require maintenance. Moreover, they are available with different-types of openings in varying sizes and are designed to meet any specific requirement.
Finally, "Colorplast" produces' patented internal laminated plastic melamine doors. They are made up of laminated panels with honey-comb filling, finished with rigid PVC borders. The doorposts are made of wood with a laminated plastic finish.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
I.What products does "Colorplast" factory manufacture? 2. What are PVC panels suitable for? 3.Why are PVC panels of particular interest to architects and builders? 4. What are window frames made of? 5. What are doorposts, made of?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:
are made in a large range of sizes; the rigid, extruded PVC panels; are completely water-proof, fire-proof and sound absorbent; "easy to install; do not require maintenance; are designed to meet any special requirement
III.Translate the following sentences:
1.This factory manufactures panels. 2. The PVC panels are extremely easy to assemble and disassemble. 3. The panels are made in a large range of sizes. 4. The ready-to-mount window frames are made of rigid PVC. 5. The window frames are completely water-proof and do not require mantenance.
TIMBER FOR BIG STRUCTURES
Here are just a number of structures which have employed timber engineering techniques to solve structural problems:
Hyperbolic paraboloid roof structures covering 406 m2.
Laminated wood curved staircase.
Plywood barrel vault roof used to construct a 1,800-m2 covered area.
Hardwood surface on timber for a 250-m outdoor banked cycle track.
Laminated timber telecommunications tower 37 m high.
The solutions of these problems have combined functional requirements with economic considerations.
Timber, and advanced technology in timber engineering is playing a vital role in solving many of the problems encountered in structural engineering. For instance:
Timber is strong for its weight and it is easily workable.
Timber does not plasticise or distort in a fire. Timber in highly resistant to corrosive chemical Timber is one of the few natural resources of the world which will not run out.
A TEST
(The answers are given below.}
What is the widest clear span possible with a timber structure? ( a) 30 metres, b) 100 metres, c) unlimited)
Which of these materials should be used in corrosive conditions? ( a) timber, b) steel, c) aluminium)
How can the strength grades of timber be assessed? ( a) visually, b) mechanically, c) not at all)
Why does structural timber perform so well in fire? ( a) The loss of strength due to its charring is slow and predictable, b) It will not expand in length, c) It does not plasticise or distort),
Can wood products achieve a class "0" spread of flame rating?
How long has the oldest timber building in the world been standing? ( a) 500 years, b) 800 years, c) over 1,200 years)
At the present rate of consumption, world timber supplies will run out in ... ( a) 50 years, b) 100 years, c) never)
ANSWERS
The size of a clear span that can be provided is theoretically unlimited. Practical restrictions are only imposed by road transport regulations.
Timber. It is virtually unaffected by chemically polluted atmosphere.
Strength grades of timber can be assessed by the supplier either visually or mechanically.
All three statements are true and contribute equally to wood's excellent performance.
Yes. Newly developed treatment makes it possible to achieve a class "0" rating—the highest possible for any material.
The oldest timber building in the world is the Temple in Japan which is more than 1,200 years old. It was constructed between 708 A. D. and 715 A. D.
More than a third of the world's land surface is still covered by forests. This, combined with timber's unique self-replacement factor, ensures that timber supplies will never run out.
І.Translate the text using a dictionary:
Asbestos
Asbestos is the only natural, non-combustible fibre known to man. Asbestos insulating boards are used to protect factories, schools, hospitals, ships -and other buildings from danger thatfire presents. It is a lightweight material for fire protection. Added to this, asbestos cement's unique combination of structural strength and weather resistance has long made it a natural choice for specifiers. Asbestos is equally stable in damp and humid conditions. It is immune to vermin, insect and bacteriological attack. It can be used for wall linings partitions ducts, ceilings, soffits, fire stops, beam and column casing. But asbestos dust is hazardous and must be reduced to a minimum. General guidelines for working with asbestos, in both industrial and domestic situations, include these of hand tools rather than power tools which create more dust.

Unit IV Engineering Components

ENGINEERING COMPONENTS
One of the most common forms of "component" is perhaps the bolt. It is used for fastening together any two or more parts of a machine which may require dismantling quickly in any emergency, such as in repair work.
The body of a bolt is called the "shank", one end of which has a "head", whilst the opposite end is "screw-threaded" to accommodate a "nut" .There are many forms of "heads", each of which is designed for a specific purpose. The most common type is the "hexagon", as shown in the illustration'. Incidentally, most types of spanners are made to fit the standard "hexagon-head" bolt.
The bolt is often fitted with a plain round "washer", which forms a sort of a "cushion" between the underside of the nut and the face of the work piece which it secures.
In some cases, in addition to an ordinary nut being fitted to a bolt, another nut is fitted, to provide extra security. The latter is called a lock-nut, and is usually half the height of an ordinary nut. Whenever a lock-nut is fitted, the bolt must be slightly longer, and its shank must be screw-threaded correspondingly to accommodate both the nut and lock-nut—and a "washer", if one is to be used. A lock-nut and nut are "locked" together, causing extra pressure to be exerted. In this way they are assisting in preventing "the nut from inadvertently becoming, unscrewed due to vibration, etc. In addition to the hexagonal type of nut square nuts are sometimes used. Another type of nut is the wing-nut, which is intended for hand use" and does not require a spanner for tighten, ing it.A further kind- is a thumb-nut, which also does not require a spanner, but is intended to be screwed between the thumb and fingers.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
1.What is the bolt used for? 2. How many types of nuts do you know? 3. What is a lock-nut used for? 4. What is the usual height of a lock-nut? 5. Does a wing-nut require a spanner for tightening it? 6. What kind of nut is a thumb-nut?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations.
to be designed for a specific purpose; many forms; in addition to another nut; to provide extra security;' to be intended for hand use; it does not require, a spanner
III. Translate the following sentences:
1.The bolt is used for fastening together any two or more parts of a machine. 2. Every form of a bolt's head is designed for a special purpose. 3. A lock-nut is usually half the height of an ordinary nut. 4. A lock-nut and a washer prevent the nut from inadvertently becoming unscrewed, due to vibration.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL ORNAMENTAL SURFACE PANELS
Glass fiber reinforced plastic panels produced in the USA are known as "Krinklglas". The sheets or slabs are designed to simulate to exactness hand-placed textural tiles, inlaid carvings, natural wood with the deep graining effects, brick, marble, stone, convex or concave ornamentation. These panels may be worked with ordinary carpentry tools with a minimum of labor. The developments provide no limitation as to color, texture or shape, and may be used for doors, wall board, roofs, flooring, furniture, bathtubs, vanity tops, lighting and others.
Because of its fiberglass reinforcement, "Krinklglas" 'is unbreakable and lighter, stronger (20 times), and safer than glass. Therefore the cost of replacement due to carelessness or everyday hazards is eliminated.
"Krinklglas" hides and resists scratches because of its patented textured surface. It is recommended to be installed in the windows on the ground floor. The dangers of shattered glass and flying objects are eliminated.
This material has good weather resistance. It is impervious to 'environmental conditions such as temperature change and all forms of precipitation. The detrimental effects of sunlight exposure and yellowing have been minimised with the addition of various absorbers.
It possesses a multi-faceted textured surface that draws and refracts light in a compelling deep three-dimensional manner, creating an effect of its own. Its color range is unlimited with a "standard" selection of 50 solid colors and 15 multi-hued combinations.
EXERCISES
І. Answer the following questions:
1.What kind of plastic panels are produced in the USA? 2. What is "Krinklglas"? 3. What are the main features of this material? 4. What kind of tools may these panels be worked with? 5. What may plastic panels be used for?
ІІ. Read and translate the following word combinations:
to have any desired surface configuration; glass fiber reinforced plastic panels; the addition of absorbers; to minimise yellowing; to eliminate the dangers of shattered glass
III.Translate the following sentences:
1.This material is impervious to temperature changes. 2.Because of its strength and excellent weather resistance this material is suitable for outdoor facing. 3. The panels made of this material are unbreakable. 4. The panels can be shaped or formed to any requirements.
TESTING OF MATERIALS
a. Non-Destructive Tests
Tests carried out on materials may be divided into two classes: destructive and non-destructive.
In the former case the specimen during its test is destroyed, and consequently is of no further use, beyond having served its purpose of indicating certain characteristics of metal from which it was made.
With regard to non-destructive tests these can be performed on any finished article, prior to its intended use—for during such a test the article (or specimen) is not destroyed.
In this category comes the X-ray test, which is taking an X-ray photograph of the specimen. This test serves a useful purpose for detecting internal flaws, blow-holes, or cracks, in castings and welded work.
Normally a cracked casting can readily be detected if gently struck by a hammer and noting the dull tone of the sound emitted, as compared with the clear tone given by a perfect casting.
Other non-destructive tests are also used.
b. Destructive Tests
Of the destructive or damageable tests, two of the most commonly used are: the tensile, and hardness types. The former consists of exerting a tensile (pulling) force on the specimen and carefully recording its characteristics until it breaks. The final, or breaking load is known as its' ultimate stress, and is denoted in tons per square inch of the material.
The hardness test consists of pressing into the surface of the specimen a very hard steel ball— usually of 10 mm in diameter. The pressure is applied evenly, and the extent of indentation resulting in the specimen is carefully measured across its diameter and depth.
Certain values (or numerals) have been adopted and tabulated for the relative degrees of hardness of various materials, from which comparisons can be made with specimens tested.
Other tests for a metal's hardness are also made.
EXERCISES
І. Answer the following questions:
1.What tests may be carried out on materials? 2.When are non-destructive testes used? 3.What is the X-ray test? 4. How can a cracked casting be detected? 5. What types of the destructive tests are most commonly used? 6. What does the hardness test consist of ?
II.Complete the following sentences:
1. Non-destructive tests can be performed on any.... 2. The X-ray test is.... 3. The X-ray test is performed for detecting.... 4. A cracked -casting can also be detected if... .5. The breaking load is denoted in... .
III.Translate the following sentences:
1.The X-ray test serves for detecting internal flaws, blowholes, or cracks, in castings and welded work. 2. Non-destructive tests can be performed on any finished article. 3. The destructive test consists of exerting a pulling force on the specimen. 4. The hardness test consists of pressing a very hard steel ball into the surface of the specimen.
Unit V Construction in Abroad
BUILDING AT SEA
Ekofisk is the name given to a geological structure under the North Sea—to be more precise a vast strata of limestone lying 10,000 feet underground and stretching eight miles from north to south and four miles from east to west. This limestone is saturated with oil and gas. To produce this oil and gas a hole is drilled down into the limestone reservoir. The whole of the oil reservoir is under pressure. This pressure will force the oil and gas out of the rock and up through the cased hole to the surface.
This operation is very simple. The problem at Ekofisk is that the area of operations lies 180 miles out in the North Sea and water depths often exceed 200 feet.
This makes everything connected with extracting oil very difficult and very expensive. To justify such expense the volume of oil produced has to be very large.
The central part of the Ekofisk installation consists of a series of platforms connected by bridges and raised 60 feet above sea level. It stretches more than half a mile from north to south in the central part of the field.
At one end of the Ekofisk complex a gigantic concrete tank is installed. It can store 1,000,000 barrels1 of oil. Without it many days' production would be lost each year during bad weather. This is because the North Sea is sometimes so stormy that tankers cannot load safely. As soon as the storm subsides and during fine weather tankers will empty the tank.
The tank is a huge reinforced concrete structure that sits squarely on the sea bed. It is so tall that it projects above the sea to the same height as the other platforms at Ekofisk. It consists of a group of nine cylindrical concrete tanks sitting on a concrete and steel base surrounded by a
perforated concrete breakwater wall. The whole tank is topped by a structural steel platform. The breakwater is 270 feet high. The complete tank is also 270 feet high and weighs 235,000 tons.
The foundations were constructed in a drydock in Norway. When they were complete they were towed out to a harbour and grounded on the sea bottom.
The rest of the Ekofisk facilities are of steel, welded together as in ships. It was built in separate parts in different shipyards in Europe and in the USA. This cut construction time. The undersea part of the Ekofisk platforms are called jackets.
The superstructure was split into units—vast blocks of finished equipment that had simply to be connected together. Each one was constructed and fitted out on shore, and then taken out to the worksite and slotted into place. 'Workmen were needed to put the sections into place and connect them all together, but far fewer than would have been needed to "fit out" this equipment on site. Naturally, the bigger the unit that could be installed the better. The limit was the capacity of the crane barge 1,200 ton.
It took two years to bring all the jackets to the site and launch into place with the help of the crane barges. The largest jacket was 250 feet long and weighed 2,500 tons.
EXERCISES
I.Answer the following questions:
1.Where is the Ekofisk oil field situated? 3. What kind of structure is situated at Ekofisk? 3. What is the tank made of? 4. What is this tank for? 5. Where were the foundations constructed?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations and use them in the sentences of your own:
up through the cased hole; out of the rock; a huge reinforced concrete structure; on the sea bed; vast blocks of finished equipment; to be connected together.
ІІІ. Translate the following sentences:
1. The central part of the installation consists of a series of platforms. 2. A gigantic concrete tank was installed. 3. The complete tank weighs 235,000 tons. 4. The facilities are of steel, welded together as in ships.
BUILDING ON PERMAFROST
The Institute of Frozen Soils attached to the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences is situated in Yakutsk.
Perhaps you think that you cannot find places that never thaw out anywhere except in the Far North? This is not so. The permafrost zones are almost under half of the Soviet Union. To the east of the Yenisei, there is solid permafrost from the Arctic Ocean to the Chinese and Mongolian borders. A quarter of the land on our planet is frozen. The whole of Antarctica, nearly the whole of Greenland, three quarters of Alaska, and two thirds of Canada are clothed in an icy armour.
Several bodies of mammoths have been discovered in Siberia, frozen in the permafrost for thousands of years. It seems that the word "eternal" is absolutely -suitable to this hopelessly frozen ground. And yet, permafrost is only preserved if people do not interfere with nature. At times a footpath beaten in the tundra, a carpet of moss ruined by the caterpillar of a tractor, a new house can change the situation. Ground that has been frozen solid for centuries can suddenly turn into a boggy swamp. This can create great difficulties for builders. If they build a house without considering the specificity of frozen ground, the house will be short-lived. The ground will thaw and the building will collapse. This was the unfortunate end of many early projects in the permafrost zone.
Today one can see tall blocks of flats and huge industrial enterprises in the Far North. They are not exactly ordinary. Walking along the streets of Yakutsk one notices that all the buildings are raised off the ground on concrete piles. This is -done to prevent the ground from thawing out. It was suggested by permafrost experts, who proved that permafrost can act as a solid foundation for any building if it is handled properly.
Way back in the 30s the Institute began to work out theories for constructing roads and railways in permafrost zones, and for building blocks of flats, factories, 'gold mines and airports. New problems kept coming up as time went by. The construction of hydroelectric power stations, for instance. Since 1970 several big power stations have been built in the Polar Circle.
The discovery of rich oil and gas deposits in the North has forced permafrost experts to solve the problem of laying pipelines in frozen ground. There are pipelines in Yakutia and on the Taimyr Peninsula beyond the Arctic Circle now. A giant trunk pipeline will take gas from Yakutia to the Pacific coast.
EXERCISES
1. Answer the following questions:
1. What Institute deals with the problem of building in permafrost zones? 2. Where is this Institute situated? 3. How much land on our planet is frozen? 4. What can create great difficulties for builders in permafrost zones? 5. Are there any tall buildings in the Far North today?
II. Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences. Memorise them:
1. The Institute of Frozen Soils is situated in ... ( a) Norilsk, b) Yakutsk, c) Magadan). 2. The permafrost zones are ... ( a) only in the Far North, b) in many areas of our planet). 3. The permafrost... (a) is eternal, b) can turn into a boggy swamp). 4. All the buildings in Yakutsk ... ( a) stand on the ground, b) are raised off the ground on concrete piles).
III. Complete the following sentences:
1.There are many places on our planet with... .2.If we build a house without considering specific features of frozen ground, the house....3. The permafrost experts proved that permafrost can act as a solid foundation for any building, if... .4. When turning into a boggy swamp frozen ground can create great difficulties for ... .5. Many huge enterprises are built on....


METRIC SYSTEM IN THE USA
The use of the metric system in the USA is increasing. With 90% of the world's countries using or going to use the metric system the USA cannot as a nation stand alone in a metric world. Not adopting the International System of Units (SI) they will be limiting their position in world trade. The adoption of the metric system would give an opportunity to investigate and improve designs and materials in the construction industry. Standardisation of sizes, configurations, etc. could also be done at the same time.
The adoption of the metric system would further promote the international exchange of building construction techniques and materials and sharing in technological advancements among different countries.
The International System of Units is convenient for engineering computation thus reducing errors. US industries that have been working towards the metric system have not experienced the difficulty expected in learning and using the system. There are thousands of engineering standards applied to nealy every product from the smallest screw to the largest building truss. Cement and paint, nails and light bulbs, screen doors and linoleum, ceiling tile and kitchen cabinets, elevators and door knobs— all are covered by standards to attain comparability between competing products and to enhance product quality and reliability. There are standard provisions for processing (how products are fabricated, shipped, erected, installed), for materials (their chemical and physical constituency and properties); for functioning (how the product functions internally and along with interconnected or related products); for dimensions (linear sizes) and for tolerances (the latitude within which standard dimensions may vary for each product). All these standards must be changed to metric.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
What will the International System of Units bring the USA in international standard development? 2. How will it improve their position? 3. Is the metric system convenient for engineering computation? 4. Are there any difficulties in using the metric system? 5. What are the advantages of the metric system?
II. Complete the following sentences:
1. The use of the metric system in the USA is.... 2. The International System of Units is convenient for.... 3. Many people in the USA think that the adoption of the metric system would promote....
III. Translate the text using a dictionary:
Plywood
Plywood is a structural board. It is stronger and has more dimensional stability than wood, and is glued from an odd number of sheets of veneer with the grain of adjacent sheets at right angles to each other. Three-ply is the commonest and cheapest but multi-ply is also much used. Plywood was used by the joiners of Europe particularly France, in furniture-making some centuries ago. It is also believed to have been used by the ancient Romans and Egyptians. Plywood panels for doors were made in 1890. Plywood was known in the USA as "veneered stock" until 1919.

MECHANICAL HANDLING ON CONSTRUCTION SITES
Too many buildings are still designed without thought to mechanised handling. But the common task of architects and site engineers is to cut handling time and save costs.
In the last few years, architects and engineers have realised that mechanical handling requirements should be incorporated into the design process. However, apart from general lifting and transport problems, specific design is difficult. Contractors often apply different methods of handling, as this depends on trailer and crane availability.
Mechanical handling during construction should be treated as a normal design parameter.
The elements of a building should be designed as the optimum solution for the building type, preferred method of construction and cost available, but should incorporate sufficient strength for all reasonable handling requirements.
In low rise work prefabricated roof trusses are plumbing "heart" units, and packaged handling by rough terrain forklift trucks and special machines.
Architects and engineers engaged on large projects realise that it is in their interest to minimise the weight of components to reduce cranage costs and to consider site access for delivery vehicles.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions:
I.Why lifting and transport problems on the construction site must be taken into account byarchitects? 2. Why is it important to minimise the size of structural elements? 3. How shouldmechanical handling during construction be treated? 4. What does a method of handling depend on?5. How should the elements of a building be designed?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations and use them in the sentences of your own:
structural components; to cut handling time; to minimise the size; to reduce cranage costs; to consider site access for delivery vehicles
III.Translate the following sentences:
1.Architects have now realised that mechanical handling requirements should be incorporated. 2. It is important to minimise the weight of components to reduce cranage costs. 3. The lifting and transport problems during construction should be treated as a normal design parameter. 4. It is important to consider -site access for delivery vehicles. 5. The method of handling can depend on trailer and crane availability.
SELF-ERECTING TOWER CRANE GCI 5400
General Principles. The crane described is a completely self-contained mobile self-erecting hydraulic crane. This is a telescopic tower crane in the true sense of the word "telescopic". Not only is the tower telescopic, but also the boom, which can be fitted with lattice fly jib.Once on the site it is a completely self-contained unit, as it is constructed to form a semi-trailer requiring a tractor unit for its movement from site to site, and also its movement around a construction site. If the crane is to remain static for a couple of days the tractor unit can be taken away and used for some other purpose, thus increasing its utilisation. The overall length of the semi trailer in its transport position is 19.812 m. The only limiting factor concerning the choice of tractor units is that of its maximum height, which should be less than 2.807 m.
Manoeuvrability. The trailer has an overall width of 3.048 m, and the height has been kept down to an acceptable 4.102 m, for a crane that is able to lift to a height of nearly 77 m. Once the crane has been set in position and the forward stabilisers lowered to take the weight the tractor unit can be removed. As the rear outriggers have an overall spread of only 8.229 m centre to centre the GCI 5400 can be set up parallel with an existing building and within 3 m of it. Once the outriggers have been set up, the crane is ready for erection. On the GCI 5400 there are two engines, one supplying power for erection and one for the crane motions. Mounted at the front end of the undercarriage is a diesel engine which develops 52 hp at 2,550 rpm and drives a single gear type pump supplying 80 litre / min. This pump distributes its oil to the outriggers, tower lift cylinders, tower extension
The Engine. The upper deck is mounted on a ball bearing turntable and is able to slew continuously through 360 deg. Mounted at the rear of this turntable is a Caterpillar 3208 diesel engine delivering some 165 hp at 2,400 rpm. This engine drives a three section Rear type pump which has a total output of 565 litre / min. All movements of the crane are hydraulically actuated.In corporated in the hydraulic system in the return line is a full flow filter with bypass protection and replaceable cartridges. The boom is a three-section type which is hydraulically telescoped from 10 to 25 m. This boom can also be filled with a 12 m lattice type fly jib which is all part of the standard equipment. When erected the crane can be operated from either the cab, which is mounted on the upper deck, or from a remote control panel. The remote control panel is equipped with 50 m of cable as standard, so the operator can stand almost where he likes, on the ground or even up on a structure right next to where the load has to be placed.
Load Indicator. Incorporated in- the crane is a load moment indicator which warns the operator both audibly and by light when the operation approaches 90 per cent of the safe working load. If lifts are attempted beyond 100 per cent of the safe working load, all crane functions which can overload the machine are cut out. However the operator can still slew; retract or raise the boom to reduce the operating radius. All the rated capacities are based on structural strength and none exceed 66.33 per cent of the tipping load. There are certain restrictions. The crane must not be operated when the wind speed is in excess of 56 km/h, loads over 3,400 kg must only be handled in low hoist speed.
High Speed. Time taken for full erection with the boom lip to a height of .66 m is 16 min, which is pretty good when one considers that this crane is capable of lifting to that height a load of 9,080 kg. The maximum tower height is 42.6 m, and the maximum radius of the boom is 22.8 m at which the GCI 5400 is able to lift a load of 1,818 kg. This compares very favourably with many of the truck and trailer mounted tower cranes already in use.
EXERCISES
Answer the following questions:
1.What kind of crane is the GCI 5400? 2. How many engines has this crane? 3. What is the maximum lifting capacity of the crane? 4. To what height is this crane able to lift a load? 5. How does this crane move on a construction site?
II.Read and translate the following word combinations:
rated capacities; tipping load; load indicator; incorporated in the crane; certain restrictions; wind speed
III.Translate the following sentences:
1. This telescopic tower crane is a completely self-contained mobile self-erecting hydraulic crane. 2. The crane constructed is a semi-trailer requiring a tractor unit for its movement from site to site. 3. This crane can be set up parallel with an existing building and within 3 m. of it. 4. The controls for the erection of the tower are housed in a lockable box. 5. This diesel engine delivers some 165 hp at 2,400 rpm.
GLOSSARY
a неопределённый артикль перед исчисляемыми существительными, начинающимися с согласного звука
an неопределённый артикль перед исчисляемыми существительными, начинающимися с гласного звука.
about приблизительно, около
all все, весь, вся, всё
and соединительный союз «и»
basis основа
be быть
by предлог, указывающий на автора, передаётся русским творительным падежом
concept концепция
condition условие
construction конструкция, конструирование
designing проектирование, конструирование
diagram диаграмма
dictate диктовать; предписывать
different различный, разный
for предлог, соответствующий русскому «для»
form составлять; формировать(ся)
former бывший
general общий; главный; генеральный
generate вырабатывать
heat
heat balance тепло(та)
тепловой баланс
in предлог, соответствующий русскому «в»
lead
leading a вести
ведущий
manufacture (-ed, -ed) производить; изготавливать
nuclear атомный
of предлог, указывающий на принадлежность, передаётся родительным падежом
offer предлагать
operate
operating conditions работать, действовать, управлять
условия работы
over предлог, соответствующий русскому «на», «по» (по территории)
per cent процент
plant электростанция; завод
power энергия, мощность
provide обеспечивать; поставлять
situated расположенный
steam пар
territory территория
their их (притяжательное местоимение в 3-м лице множественного числа)
total весь, совокупный
turbine турбина
type тип
union союз
world мир
Constructive scheme foundation
конструктивная
constructive
схема
scheme
фундамент
foundation
стена
wall
ленточный
strip
колона
pillar
столбчатый
poll
отдельный
isolated
Сплошной
ruft
свайный
pile
железобетонный
ferro-concrete
фундаментная балка
foundation beam
ростверк
grill
фундаментная плита
foundation plate
assembly сборка
blade лопатка, лопасть
case случай
circuit цикл
condenser конденсатор
develop развивать; разрабатывать
electrohydraulic электрогидравлический
feature свойство; особенность
following следующий
governing регулирующий; управляющий
have иметь
heat-proof жаропрочный
high высокий
hour час
intercanal внутриканальный
operating life ресурс; срок службы
material материал
moisture влага; влажность
overhaul капитальный ремонт
pellicular пленочный
period design период
purpose цель
regenerative регенеративный
removal удаление
rotational вращающийся
sectional секционный
separation разделение, отделение
service служба
special особый; специальный
speed
rotational speed скорость
скорость вращения; частота
step
step by step шаг
постепенно, шаг за шагом
surface
surface-type поверхность
поверхностного типа
system система
unit единица, узел, блок
use использовать; применять
vacuum вакуум
water вода
with с (указывает на связь, совместность, согласованность во взглядах)

award присуждать что-либо; награждать чем-либо
best самый лучший, наилучший
big большой
capacity мощность, производительность
carry out проводить; выполнять
class класс; группа; категория
condition
steam conditions параметры
параметры пара (давление, объем, температура)
continuous постоянный; длительный
demand спрос; требование; потребность
effectiveness результативность, эффективность
efficiency рентабельность; эффективность
exhibition выставка
fabricate производить, изготовлять
factory завод, фабрика
first первый
foreign иностранный; зарубежный
golden золотой
indicate показывать
license лицензия
master освоить; овладеть
medal медаль
modification модификация; видоизменение
more более; больший
most наибольший; наиболее
optimal оптимальный
owing to благодаря; вследствие
popular популярный
ratio соотношение; пропорция
reliability надёжность
research (научное) исследование
same тот же самый
series (только множественное число) серия
thorough основательный, тщательный
try-out испытание
version версия, вариант
well
as well as хорошо; а также; так же как
work Работа
application применение
consequently следовательно; в результате; поэтому
continue продолжать(ся)
corporation корпорация
during в течение, в продолжение
dynamic динамический
effect выполненять, осуществлять
effort попытка, усилие
engineering
технология; техника
гидроэнергетика
especially в частности; особенно
establishment основание, учреждение
experience опыт; практика
extensive обширный
field область, сфера
history история
including включая
innovation новшество
install устанавливать; монтировать
interested заинтересованный
long долгий; длинный
many много
modern современный
outstanding выдающийся
over свыше
oversea заграничный, заморский
particularly в частности; oсобенности
qualified квалифицированный
since с, со времени
study изучать, исследовать
subject тема, предмет, вопрос
throughout повсюду

as как, в качестве
avoid исключать; избегать
bolt болт
build
build v (built, built) строительство; сооружение
строить; сооружать
claim утверждать, заявлять
combine комбинировать; сочетать(ся)
compare
compared to сравнивать
по сравнению
conventional традиционный; обычный
cost [ затраты, стоимость
coupling соединение
damage повреждение; вред
day день; сутки
each каждый, всякий
equipment оборудование
finalize завершать, заканчивать; придавать окончательную форму
fit посадка, пригонка
hole
bolt hole отверстие
болтовое отверстие
increase увеличивать(ся)
intense интенсивный; напряжённый
major главный
original подлинный; оригинальный
path
critical path working путь; курс
режимная непрерывная работа
production производство; продукция
radial радиальный
reduce понижать
remove удалять
result результат
save экономить
seizure заедание; заклинивание
significant значительный, существенный
specify специфицировать; давать спецификацию
still всё ещё, до сих пор
supply
steam turbine supplier снабжать; обеспечивать
элемент оборудования паровой турбины
that что (служит для введения придаточных дополнительных предложений)
there лишённое лексического значения слово, употребляющееся в основном с глаголом to be
time раз; время

acceptable приемлемый; допустимый
activate приводить в действие
аctuate приводить в действие
addition
in addition дополнение
кроме того, к тому же
also тоже, также
capacity емкость
cause причина
common общий; обычный; распространенный
complete полный
control управлять; контролировать
disturbance повреждение; неисправность
diverse разный
due to благодаря; из-за; вследствие
emergency крайняя необходимость, авария
existing существующий
failure
common cause failure авария
отказ по общей причине
heat heat removal тепло(та)
отвод тепла; теплоотвод
inside внутри
level уровень
limitation ограничение
loss утрата, потеря
main главный, основной
must модальный глагол, выражает долженствование, обязанность
occur случаться, происходить
pilot вспомогательный
pressure давление
prevent
prevent from предотвращать
препятствовать чему-либо; не допускать что-либо
protection защита; предохранение
reactor реактор, атомный котел
reclose повторно включать
relieving
relieving capacity понижение, сдувка давления
сдувочная ёмкость
rise увеличиваться, подниматься
Safety
safety-relief безопасность; сохранность
защитный, предохранительный
sink
heat sink сток
сток теплового потока; тепловод
situation ситуация
small маленький
alter изменять(ся)
another другой
arrangement расположение; устройство
as так как; поскольку
between между
call называть
commercial промышленный; коммерческий
contain содержать в себе
element элемент
hardness твёрдость
how как? каким образом?
impact удар
integral неотъемлемый
iron железо; чугун
large большой
lattice решётка
metal металл
other другой
part часть
place место
property свойство
relationship отношение, взаимоотношение
specific специфический; особенный
steel
сталь
strength прочность
take
take place брать, взять
иметь место
toughness упругость; жёсткость; плотность
various различный
amount количество
consumption потребление
current современный; находящийся в обращении
customer заказчик; покупатель; клиент
differ отличаться; различаться
fuel топливо, горючее
future будущий
generally обычно; как правило
good хороший
important важный
in order to для того, чтобы
introduce вводить
introduction введение
joining соединение; присоединение; сращивание
key ключ
kind род; класс; тип
low низкий
manner способ; метод
meet отвечать, соответствовать (требованиям) встречать
natural натуральный; естественный; природный
obtain получать; приобретать
order
in order to порядок; последовательность
для того, чтобы
performance отдача; успех
prepare подготавливаться; готовиться
question вопрос; проблема
requirement требование
see видеть
self [self] n
self-evident сам
самоочевидный, очевидный
solution решение; разрешение (вопроса)
stand
stand out стоять
выделяться, выступать
structure конструкция; устройство; структура
subversion
низвержение; гибель
technique технология; техника
way путь
accurate точный
alternative альтернатива, выбор
attach прикреплять, прикладывать
basic основной
bear
bearing нести
несущий
bed основание; станина
column колонна; стойка
comprise содержать; заключать в себе
corner угол
deflection отклонение; прогиб; провес
dependable надежный
dial
dial indicator циферблат; шкала
цифровой индикатор
downward вниз, книзу
drifting отклонение; дрейф
expensive дорогой, дорого стоящий
frequent частый; часто встречающийся
inch дюйм (=2,5 см)
know
known as знать
известный как (под именем)
linear линейный
link cкоба; сцепление
load нагрузка
locate располагать в определенном месте
measuring измерение, замер
member элемент конструкции
out of из; за пределы
output производительность, мощность
replace заменить
rod тяга; прут; стержень
solid твердый (не жидкий, не газообразный)
strain натяжение, растяжение
subsequently впоследствии, потом
tie соединительная тяга
together вместе
top верхушка
acquire приобретать
coupled спаренный; связанный
degeneration разрушение; вырождение
determine определять; устанавливать
detrimental вредный; приносящий ущерб
devise изобретать
exchange обменивать
instance пример, отдельный случай
layer слой, пласт
mass масса
mixing смешение; смешивание
near близкий; близлежащий
often часто
outer внешний, наружный
peripheral периферийный
prevail преобладать
procedure процедура
proceed происходить; развиваться
rapid быстрый, скорый
screen заслон, завеса
shape форма, очертание
solve решать
subdevide подразделять(ся)
submerge погружать(ся); проникать
thus таким образом
towards к, по направлению к
transfer перемещение
wall стена

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