You are a first-year student of the Oil and Gas Producing Department, one of the largest and the oldest at the Institute. You know that our oil and gas industry needs a great number of oil engineers. You will be one of them in a few years.
The main chairs of the department are the following:
oil and gas wells drilling;
oil fields development and exploitation;
gas and gas-condensate fields development and exploitation.
1. The students specializing in oil and gas wells drilling become drillers or mining engineers. In their future work they will solve rather complicated but interesting problems: to automatize the process of drilling, to drill deep wells faster at a minimum cost, to improve the drilling technology and so on..
The students specializing in oil fields development and exploitation will deal with the recovery of oil, repair of oil wells, improvement of secondary oil recovery and many other problems.
The students specializing in the gas and gas-condensate fields developments and exploitation are trained in all the problems of theory, technology and designing of gas and gas- condensate field development. They study all the subjects connected with the transportation and underground storage of gas.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers.
The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech ‘Great Britain’ is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys land plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest — east, centre and south-east is — a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343m).
There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.
The UK is one of the world's smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban.
The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the Queen. In practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. The Conservative party is the ruling party nowadays.
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about on seventh of the earth's surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea border with the USA.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russia; the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers — the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena -flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1,600 metres) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count (плохо видно это слово- может быть ошибка) the stones on the bottom.
Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and-in the Far East.
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the North to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.
At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated. There are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.
But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world. For sure that we younger generation, can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.