Hofmann G.,Pajevic M.,MagShamhráin R.,Shields M. (eds.) — German and European Poetics after the Holocaust.Crisis and Creativi..


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German and European
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Studies in German Literature, Linguistics, and Culture
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Copyright © 2011 by the Editors and Contributors
All Rights Reserved
. Except as permitted under current legislation,
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Introduction 1
Gert Hofmann, Rachel MagShamhráin, Marko Pajevi
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8: Barely explicable power of the word, that separates and
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Queens University Belfast and the
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ANNIVERSARY
of the end of the Second World
War and the liberation of Auschwitz, we are fast approaching the eight-
decade death-knell for all lebendige ErinnerungŽ
cative, memory) of the Nazi genocide. It would seem, then, that we have
reached another critical milestone on our path backward into the future.
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with the issue of the presents representation of, its relationship, and its
duties toward the past, a struggle that is revealed in all its complexity in
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das Mißlingen der Kultur unwiderleglich bewiesen.... Alle Kultur
[It abhors stench because it stinks„ because, as Brecht put it in
a magnificent line, its mansion is built of dogshit. Years after that
line was written, Auschwitz demonstrated irrefutably that culture has
failed.... All post-Auschwitz culture, including its urgent critique,
This is arguably the bluntest version of Adornos dictum, taken from his
, published in 1966. This formulation
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refuge in any kind of redemptive thinking,Ž
discursive (critical) or revelatory (theological), because this would imply
ihrer bewußtlosen Geschichtsschreibung. Die authentischen Künstler der
Gegenwart sind die, in deren Werken das äußerste Grauen nachzittertŽ
(However, because the world has survived its own downfall, it still needs
art as its unconscious historiography. The true artists of today are those in
whose works absolute horror still quakes; Zwanziger JahreŽ 53).
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eruptions or irruptions of new ideas and phenomena; it is hardly, if ever,
used to describe states of stagnation, or of conceptual decay. In the cre-
ative sphere„ in the arts and in thought„ ironically, it would be a
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difficulties facing any act of artistic creation in Germany after the catastro-
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The final part of the collection contains comparative explorations of
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Representing the Holocaust: History, Theory, Trauma
(Ithaca: Cornell
UP, 1996); Berel Lang most rigidly emphasizes the representational problematic
and refers in this context explicitly to Adorno in
Holocaust Representations: Art
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Soziologische Forschungen in unserer Zeit: Ein Sammelwerk. Leopold Wiese zum 75.
Geburtstag
, ed. Karl-Gustav Specht (Köln: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1951), 228…41.
Howard Caygill gives a very insightful account of the development of Adornos
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History appears as synthesis of fact and narrative, of
res gestas
historia rerum
gestarum
. See Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
Howard Caygill, however, claims that Adorno still follows a strictly dialectic
logic, applying Hegelian concepts of reflectionŽ (Caygill 73).
Der moderne Begriff der reinen, autonomen Kultur bezeugt den ins Unver-
söhnliche angewachsenen Antagonismus durch Kompromißlosigkeit gegenüber
dem für anderes Seienden sowohl wie durch die Hybris der Ideologie, die sich als
an sich Seiendes inthronisiertŽ (KulturkritikŽ 21; The modern notion of a pure,
autonomous culture indicates that the antagonism has become irreconcilable. This
357; The guilt of a life which purely as a fact will strangle other life... is irrecon-
Sue Vice,
, New York: Routledge, 2000), 7.
Smothered Words: Holocaust Studies
(Evanston: Northwestern
UP, 1998), 7.
Jean-Luc Nancy,
(New York: Fordham UP, 2005),
34. Subsequent references to this work will be quoted in the text using Nancy and
(Paris: PUF, 1985), 95.
Krise ist immer,Ž in
Herzzeit: Ingeborg Bachmann„ Paul Celan. Der Briefwechsel. Mit den Brief-
wechseln zwischen Paul Celan und Max Frisch sowie zwischen Ingeborg Bachmann
, ed. B. Badiou, H. Höller, A. Stoll, B. Wiedemann,
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Autrement quêtre ou au-delà de lessence
(Paris: Le Livre de Poche, 1974).
Giorgio Agamben,
Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life
, trans. Daniel
Heller-Roazen (1995; repr. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998); and
Remnants of
Auschwitz: The Witness and the Archive
(1998; repr. New York: Zone books,
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form the backbone of the camp, an anonymous mass, continually renewed
The obliteration of the very concept
of the individual in the death camps and the resulting death of death itself
effected, in Adornos view, immense repercussions for both the survivor
and the post-Shoah writer. For the survivor, death can never mean death
in the traditional sense of the word, after a hell has been created in which
specimens and not human individuals die, where lifeŽ means walking
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down, and traditional language... no longer have any power. They are
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[This horror must not be removed from its historical framework and
stylized as some kind of negative myth.Ž If that were to happen the
beyond history. This would render the notions of responsibility and
shame superfluous.]
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in the very opening lines of the poem. The first thing that immediately
catches the readers attention is the frequent interruption of the poem
This hyphenation permeates the textuality of her poems and assumes cru-
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strongly perceptible in her work: that which is not said is just as important
as that which is. One particularly distressing poem in which the reader is
forced to apprehend an unspoken reality behind the lines is Sie schreien
nicht mehr.Ž This is undoubtedly one of Sachss most disturbing poems:
Einer steigt auf die Wunden des anderen
aber es sind nur Wolken
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Immer noch essen an uns die Würmer der Angst. (
Fahrt ins Staub-
[We the rescued/ The nooses wound for our necks still dangle/
before us in the blue air„/ The hourglasses still fill with our drip-
ping blood/ We the rescued/ The worms of fear still feed on us.
In its clarity the imagery in this poem is disturbing, to say the very least.
Nooses dangle in the blue air, worms of fear feed on the survivors, the
hourglass contains blood instead of sand. Death has become omnipresent,
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2: FlaschenpostŽ and WurfholzŽ:
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züngige Mein-
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different meanings of the Greek term
(he uses this word in his
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The bunte Gerede des An-/erlebtenŽ (garish talk of rubbed-off
experience) has no real existence, it is a decoration, without truth, lying,
hundert-/züngigŽ (hundred-/tongued) and possessive„ Mein-/
GedichtŽ (a word that could be read, as Michael Hamburger does, to
beiztŽ in its hard (dental) articulation is a very appropriate word in Cel-
force of nature that can erode even stone.
Celan wrote many poems while undergoing psychiatric treatment;
most of these are found in
situation of being confined and distant from a nature that he loved. Only
in the landscape of language can he go out; otherwise the living skyŽ has
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In the powerless painful situation described, the only strength is the
word: you bite yourself als WortŽ (which means you are the word) into
the starless HalmŽ (blade of grass). Starless„ sternlosŽ„ links back
The HalmŽ can also be understood here as a blade of straw,
, suggesting the last possible solution in a painful or dangerous situ-
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heartland perhaps. In this sense poems too are underway: They are
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the youŽ who is at the receiving end of the NesselnachrichtŽs impera-
tive: beiß dich als WortŽ (bite yourself as a word)?
only in a room but in his own tuckernden SchädelŽ? The power of trans-
forming an unbearable situation into lyrics as a means of survival? While
researching my thesis on Nelly Sachs,
auch Enzensbergers Entgegnung, die Dichtung müsse eben diesem
Verdikt standhalten, so also sein, daß sie nicht durch ihre bloße Exi-
stenz nach Auschwitz dem Zynismus sich überantworte. Ihre eigene
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merely peddled what he called a Nachtigallen- oder Singdrosselperspe-
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Celans Holocaust poem, which can be found in every German school-
waren wir, sind wir, werden
Niemandsrose. (GW 1:225)
[No one molds us again out of earth and clay,/ no one conjures
our dust./ No one. // Praised be your name, no one./ For your
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sake/ we shall flower./ Toward/ you. // A nothing/ we were,
are, shall/ remain, flowering:/ the nothing-, the/ no ones rose.
Preisungsformel mancher Psalmen an.
[A glance at MandorlaŽ shows that no one... can be understood
The beginning of the second stanza confirms this assumption. For
the phrase praised be thou, no-oneŽ reminds us of the formula of
praise used in certain psalms.]
I would contend, however, that the idea of
the name of God. There is another tradition at work in Celans words: the
tradition of existentialism, specifically Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul
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Being is the transcendens pure and simple
Individuation is the task of the human as self-transcending being. From
this point of view, it is quite possible to take nobody„
erally, because it refutes the idea of a God who created men: There is
nobody who formed human beings out of dust. The personal address to
could be seen as the post-religious thinking of the free self-fashioning
man as responsible for himself.
The cabbalistic and Bible references are, from this viewpoint, parts
of a religious tradition that is present in Celans poems, but that is auf-
gehobenŽ„ raised and stored away„ to recall two aspects of Hegels
triple sense of the word
(sublation): dissolved as firm belief (in
the third aspect), but saved and preserved as the possibility of transcend-
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[WHITE NOISES, bundled,/ ray-/ ways/ over the table/ with
the message in a bottle. // (It is listening to itself, listening/ to a
sea, drinking it/ over, un-veiled/ the mouths heavy of way). //
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Gisela Dischner,
... bald sind wir aber GesangŽ: Zur Hölderlin-Linie der
Moderne
Sigmund Günther,
(Stuttgart: Göschen, 1891).
See Gisela Dischner, ... die wildernde Überzeugung, daß dies anders zu
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(Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1964), 175.
, ed. Ernst Müller (Düsseldorf: E. Diederich, 1932), 21.
che Kommentare
(Bonn: Bouvier, 1983), 22.
Martin Heidegger,
(Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1977), 38.
Martin Heidegger,
Basic Writings
, ed. David Farrell Krell (London: Routledge,
Über den Gesprächspartner: Gesammelte Essays 1913…1924,
woods wayfaring to the light, truth sends a message).
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3: History and Nature in Motion:
Paradigms of Transformation in the
Postwar Poems of Ingeborg Bachmann
Marton Marko
Ingeborg Bachmanns premature death at age forty-
seven in a 1973 apartment fire in Rome, she was a leading figure
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are significant from the standpoint of the simultaneous de- and re-romanti-
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Die Grenzen meiner Sprache bedeuten die Grenzen meiner WeltŽ (The
Tractatus
114…15,
Proposition 5.6), confronts Bachmann with the specific challenge of work-
ing in the German language following the war as well as with the neces-
world through what had now become a problematic
sibly even irredeemable, would prove a formidable hurdle particularly for
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than privatizedŽ (Bürger 9). In making this argument, Bürger alludes
to the opening lines of the poems second and second-last stanzas, Wo
Deutschlands Himmel die Erde schwärztŽ (Where Germanys sky black-
ens the earth) and Wo Deutschlands Erde den Himmel schwärztŽ
(Where Germanys earth blackens the sky)
„ both of which echo Paul
Celans famous lyrical piece from 1945, TodesfugeŽ (Death Fugue), and
Following the experiences of the war, however, one imagines that
a reception that challenged the reality of the war period would, in fact,
have been warranted. Bachmanns vision of the path ahead as a difficult
one stemmed from her recognition that the realities of militarism, patriar-
chy, and social denial of culpability, which had prevailed during the Nazi
regime, still persisted after the war. The final two stanzas of Früher Mit-
tagŽ articulate this in terms of the silent reality of prewar conditions and
prevailing attitudes.
Wo Deutschlands Erde den Himmel schwärzt,
sucht die Wolke nach Worten und füllt den Krater mit
eh sie der Sommer im schütteren Regen vernimmt.
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[Where Germanys earth blackens the sky,
a cloud seeks words and fills the crater with
before summer is made aware of its sparse rain.
The unspeakable passes, barely spoken, over the land:
already its noon. (
Bürger takes the term Das UnsäglicheŽ (the unspeakable) to represent a
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allusions to the Holocaust. In discussing the trace of the great mid-dayŽ
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From Brecht:
Trenne dich von deinen Kameraden auf dem Bahnhof
Gehe am Morgen in die Stadt mit zugeknöpfter Jacke
Suche dir Quartier, und wenn dein Kamerad anklopft:
Öffne, o, öffne die Tür nicht
Sondern
Verwisch die Spuren!
[Separate yourself from your comrades at the train station
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er steigt um ihr wehendes Haar,
er fällt ihr ins Wort,
[There your loved one sinks in sand;
it rises up to her windblown hair,
it cuts her short,
While in the previous stanza the flow of time remains veiled in the invis-
ibility of the wind, here it assumes the more tangible, threatening physi-
cal form of the sand. Though the sand is illustrated as rising, it is in fact
the figure that sinks into it, causing the effect of the sand to overcome
her. The thematic arc from wind to sand, upheld by the blowing hair of
the woman, draws attention to the problem of language and speechless-
ness. As in Früher Mittag,Ž a command of silence appears, which the
natural world threatens to wield against voices that speak out against
the violent tide of recent history at the aforementioned horizon point.
Only borrowed human time presents the stage on which the challenges
of postwar culture can be approached. The ambiguous context of the
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context of the unfolding lyrical space, the image of smoke rising yields a
double suggestion, both of smoldering destruction following the war and
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dimension yielded by days otherness. The inferred bond, allowed for
through the suggestion of transcendence and communion, can be seen
as affixed to the idea of a natural subject placed in peril, as depicted in
the fifth stanza by the tree standing against the elements.
Die erste Welle der Nacht schlägt ans Ufer
Die zweite erreicht schon dich.
Aber wenn du scharf hinüberschaust,
Der trotzig den Arm hebt
„ einen hat ihm der Wind schon abgeschlagen
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In contrast to the motif of idealized arrival in Ausfahrt,Ž the follow-
ing poem of the volume, Abschied von EnglandŽ (Departure from Eng-
land), evades a sense of destination and turns its lyrical voice instead into
an ongoing state of flux. It is a carefully woven work with hints at a bal-
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that I had already left you
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gezimmert werdenŽ (From such crooked wood as that from which humankind is
made nothing straight can be built). This reference also frames the title of Isaiah
Berlins examination of the history of idealism, the concluding chapter of which
is entitled The Bent Twig: On the Rise of Nationalism.Ž See Isaiah Berlin,
Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas
, ed. Henry Hardy
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4: Mourning as Remembrance: Writing
Erinnerung an sie ist intakt.
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replaced.Ž
Ausländer, influenced partly by Anglophone modernism„ for
instance by E. E. Cummings, who treated grammatical categories as mate-
„ shifted away from neo-Romantic mannerism toward free
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// Who knows me/ knows/ that I am not/ I/ I am // only a/ taci-
/ the dream/ lives
out/ my life/ to its end). The semantic point of gnomic arguments lies in
the syntagmatic polyvalence of noun and verb phrases, which change sense
according to their reference to either preceding or subsequent elements.
Insofar as lexical analogy takes precedence over syntax, including the syn-
tactically flowing borders of the verse-lines, there is still a residual meaning
within the open texture of these poems.
Moderate Modernism
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From cellars below rose a scent of dark flowers
And where I stood was the center]
e, passes and
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..]
Hier steh ich/ Ich an IchŽ (GW 3:46; The mirror/ gives me/ back/
to myself [...] Here I am/ I to I), it can also turn into aggressive rivalry
or even dueling and revenge.
of master and slave, the talking mirror of Überholt IIŽ (Surpassed 2)
inverts the power structure: Verwandelt/ vertauscht // Ich war einmal
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schaut ins Wasser/ ein selbstverliebter Narziߎ (GW 5:152; In a shower
of rose-buds/ Death smiles/ and stares into the water/ a self-amorous
Narcissus). Or, in a later version, GlaswaldŽ (Forest of Glass): Im/
Glaswald verirrt/ das Gesicht verloren/ Narziß // Wiederholung im
SeeŽ (GW 7:371; Forlorn in the glassy wood/ his face lost/ Narcissus
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(GW 8:113; He murders the mother/ she lives on/ in dreams/ and
kisses him/ on the heart). If the fixation on the mother leads to psychotic
transgression, a symbolic matricide can be conceived of as the condition
of creation.
As the sign implies the absence of the thing, the daughter
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Das allzu Dichte ist auch nicht immer das Beste„ denn da geht die
Anschaulichkeit verloren„ das Gedicht wird trocken, abstraktŽ (Vogel/
Gans 129; Too much compression is not always a good thing„ it means
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Main: Suhrkamp, 1980), 693…704; here, 704; see also Das Passagen-Werk,Ž
Victor Klemperer,
Lingua Tertii Imperii
Andrei Corbea-Hoisie, Vom Bildungsbürger zum Intellektuellen: Zum Profil
der Czernowitzer Zivilisation,Ž in
Wörter stellen mir nach. Ich stelle sie vorŽ:
Dokumentation des Ludwigsburger Symposiums
2001 (Hohengehren: Schneider,
2001), 33…54; here, 50.
Ansprache anläßlich der Entgegennahme des Literaturpreises der Freien Hanse-
stadt Bremen,Ž in
Der Meridian und andere Prosa
(Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp,
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Zwei Silben verirrt
Histoires damour
Rose Ausländer,
5th ed. (Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer, 2004), 179.
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5: On the Fringes: Mistrust as Commit-
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In the following I wish to pursue the question of how this mistrust of
ones own truthfulness manifests itself formally in Aichingers literature.
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The poem consists of a single sentence with a relatively clear struc-
ture: it is a full sentence with two appositions, simple vocabulary, and
a relatively consistent rhythmic pattern. Formally it represents a clearly
delimited unit. This first impression, however, is already countered by the
first word: Since the poem starts with a causal or consecutive DennŽ
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[Winter direction
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depths of the mountain„ a day that is described as being the brightest,
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the mountains from too much light. In the morning, immediately after
waking up, we are still close to the dream sphere, our consciousness is on
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ein Stück Wirklichkeit in der UnwirklichkeitŽ (That would be a piece of
realness within the unreal). She reacts:
Ja, ein Stück viel größerer Wirklichkeit, als die Wirklichkeit damals
und heute zu geben imstande ist. Die Wirklichkeit ist nicht imstande,
ohne Gegenleistungen zu geben. Sie kommt nur hervor, wenn man
sie kontert, wenn man sie nicht anerkennt, wenn man sich nicht
[Yes, a piece of much greater realness than realness is and was capa-
ble of giving. Realness cannot give anything without reciprocity. It
The dreams are consequently not a counter-world to which to escape
from reality, they are
more precise realness
whereas it is reality that is
unreal. Realness becomes a more intense form of being than the one nor-
A reference to the philosophy of being is unavoidable here, but I do
not wish to refer to Heidegger, whose thinking on language contains
essentializing and mystifying tendencies. Martin Bubers
an intense form of being„ which is designated as WirklichkeitŽ (real-
ness) as opposed to RealitätŽ (reality)„ to an
relationship) as opposed to an
(I…it relationship), where
the other is considered as an object. In an I-thou relationship, a direct
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In this connection, a scene from the novel
Die größere Hoffnung
Greater Hope)
is telling: Adolescent Ellen is questioned in a military
guardroom, but her subtle answers disturb the orderly procedure, make
the questioners question themselves, and uncover the absurdity and unre-
alness of the military function that is equated, in a reversal of the situa-
tion, with sleep, death, and captivity. She wants to awaken the guards to
the state of dreaming. In the end the colonel, who loses control of the
situation, sums up the narrowness of the military life. He wants to pre-
vent the dream and therefore needs his own limitedness and oblivion:
Gebt euch zufrieden mit Namen und Adresse, hört ihr, es ist genug.
Mann im Mond trägt Sprengstoff auf dem Rücken. Es tut mir leid,
wir haben keine Macht, ihn einzuliefern. Aber wir haben Macht, ihn
zu vergessen.
[Content yourself with name and address, do you hear me, that is
sufficient. Dont you know any more how significant it is to be offi-
cially registered? Dont you know any more how calming it is to
march in rank and file? [...] Seize the saboteurs when the nights
are bright, dont look too much at the moon! The man in the moon
stays alone, the man in the moon carries explosives on his back.
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the intensity of life„ are in fact more precise. Her literature consists of
permanent subversion, permanent because for such an attitude nothing can
ever be secure, since security already signifies system and automatization.
For Aichinger, it is essential to resist this, to speak from a marginal position,
a position on the fringes, and to counter.
the use of this term: it is precisely through privatism that she gains com-
mitment. This is so since private signifies, according to the dictionary,
relating to the individual,Ž and realness can only be perceived individu-
ally.
Consequently for Aichinger, language is always individualized lan-
guage; she adheres to Wilhelm von Humboldts thinking on the subject
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would be lost. Writing, and consequently the reading of what has been
written, allows one to perceive things that otherwise are more difficult to
mediate. This implies therefore a mistrust toward the traditional notion of
communication. We enter the field of the ineffable,Ž a significant theme
of German postwar literature.
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We must consider Adornos sentence in the framework of his general
cultural criticism resulting from the Auschwitz experience, and GedichtŽ
(poem) is a code for culture here. It is therefore not so much the poem
that is called in question, but rather the dialectics of culture and barba-
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heraus; es rationalisiert einzig die eigene subjektive Unfähigkeit mit
dem Stand der objektiven Wahrheit und entwürdigt dadurch diese
abermals zur Lüge.
[Whoever makes a plea for the conservation of the radically guilty
and shop-soiled culture becomes an accomplice, whereas whoever
refuses to take part in it is directly supporting the barbarism that
culture proved to be. One can not even escape the circle by being
referring to the position of objective truth, and thus degrades it once
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Aichinger,
, ed. R. Reichensperger, 34…38. Subsequent
quotes from this edition will appear in the text as KMF
with the page number.
Martin Heidegger,
Bremer Vorträge 1945, Das Ge-Stell,
79 (Frankfurt am Main: V. Klostermann, 1994), 24…45; here, 27:
Durch solches Bestellen wird das Land zu einem Kohlenrevier, der
Boden zu einer Erzlagerstätte. Dieses Bestellen ist schon anderer Art als
jenes, wodurch vormals der Bauer seinen Acker bestellte. Das bäuerliche
Tun fordert den Ackerboden nicht heraus; es gibt vielmehr die Saat den
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want fantasy, I wanted precise realness, as precise as possible.Ž Quoted in Ein
paar Fragen in Briefen. Gespräch mit Ilse Aichinger,Ž in
, ed. Kurt
Bartsch and Gerhard Melzer (Graz: Droschl, 1993), 7…13; here, 12.
Martin Buber,
(Heidelberg: Verlag Lambert Schneider,
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This is very close to what Sigmund Freud explains so well in his
9 (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1989), 191…269.
See Adorno, Die auferstandene Kultur,Ž
(Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1977), 453…64.
Kramer, Wahr sind die Sätze als Impuls...Ž 506.
Adorno, Kultur und Verwaltung,Ž in
, vol. 8 (Frankfurt
Adorno,
, vol. 6 (Frankfurt am
Main: Suhrkamp, 1973), 7…412; here, 359.
Adorno, Engagement,Ž in
(Frankfurt am Main:
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ALTER
that the dreamer lives and about the way he or she is treated by those who
are in power.
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ALTER
Stefan George. Although Huch avoided explicitly labeling his texts as
literature, it becomes clear that they are meant to be artistic creations.
Here, for the first time, dream records flagged as authentic and unmodi-
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ALTER
The first aspect refers to the fact that
Das Dritte Reich des Traums
anthologizes the dream records of a large number of people. Since it has
not just one single author, it does not run the risk of generating mean-
ings of purely private significance. As it presents contributions from a
wider community, it can claim legitimately to give an insight into the
dream activities of a certain social milieu. The assumption of a collective
authorshipŽ (a term studiously avoided throughout the text) is under-
pinned by Beradts observation that different people had reported very
similar dreams. In such cases, just one each of these is reproduced in the
book, where it is tagged as typicalŽ or exemplary.Ž
due to the specific form of authorship. Dreams are not created inten-
tionally or evoked by a subjects will but emerge spontaneously. They are
involuntary and naturalŽ reactions of the psyche, transforming inter-
nal and external stimuli into a kind of fiction that, paradoxically, is not
produced by a conscious and controllable process. They rather impose
themselves on the dreamers mind. It was precisely this aspect of uncon-
scious authorship that made dreams so appealing to the surrealists. But
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ALTER
using realistic means (D 15). Given this affinity, Beradt argues, it is not
surprising that formal simulations of dreams and nightmares are so com-
(The Trial), in which the accused protagonist
K. is unable to ascertain what crime he is accused of, right down to the
moment of his execution„ is also central for Beradt. For her the para-
doxicalŽ sense of guilt, which she finds articulated in numerous dreams, is
a fundamental element of the psychological terror of a totalitarian system
that configures every deviation from conformity as transgression, a system
whose omnipresent surveillance apparatus misses nothing, and that ulti-
mately regards every expression of individuality as an offense.
Generally speaking, Beradts references to canonical authors serve
the purpose of specifying the literary profile of the dream records. The
names employed fall into groups corresponding to three of their major
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and with strategies of survival and self-defense. A typical example of the
first tendency is the dream that opens the collection, the ModelltraumŽ
(D 10), dating from the third day after Hitler seized power in Germany.
The dreamer is a sixty year-old factory owner.
Goebbels kommt in meine Fabrik. Er läßt die Belegschaft... antre-
ten. Dazwischen muß ich stehen und den Arm zum Hitlergruß
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be adopted, then it is hardly surprising that dreaming itself, as the uncon-
trollable expression of subjectivity par excellence, becomes the object of a
fictitious ban (see above, as well as D 19); in the dreams the interdictions
are obeyed, or at least taken seriously, despite their absurdity.
It is clear from these dreams that the dreamers sense the extent to
which the system curbs their freedom, imposing self-alienation, person-
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ALTER
Das Dritte Reich des Traums
, mit einem Nachwort von Rein-
hart Koselleck (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1994), 42. Subsequent references
to this work are cited in the text using the abbreviation D and page number.
The Third Reich of Dreams
The Nightmares of a Nation 1933…
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Part II: Tradition and Transgression
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one cannot punish the language for having been abused. Even though I had
the greatest anger for my fatherland, the unbreakable link is the language. I
(1951), Adorno devoted one section to delib-
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tributed to a renewal of literatures political relevance.
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Gönnt nun Vorüberziehn
Ton und dem Krach der Welt:
Tambour, mit Tripper, grüßt.
Ah, nun ein Evergreen,
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willing to pardon Heideggers politische VerfehlungenŽ (political misde-
meanors) than Celan. She calls them indiskutabelŽ (unworthy of discus-
sion), while Celan argues daß Heidegger vielleicht einiges eingesehen
patentierte Antinazis wie Böll oder AnderschŽ (patented anti-Nazis like
Be this as it may, Bachmann shared her moral concern about lan-
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(München: dtv, 1976), esp. Kunst und
Ingeborg Bachmann,
Probleme zeitgenössischer Dichtung: Frankfurter Vorlesun-
(München: Piper, 2000).
Martin Heidegger,
Aus der Erfahrung des Denkens
Subsequent references to this work are cited in the text with ED and the page
number. Translations are from Martin Heidegger,
Basic Writings: From
The Task of Thinking, ed. David Farrell Krell (London: Routledge,
1977). Subsequent references to this work are cited in the text with BW and the
page number.
One is tempted to read another of Heideggers aphorisms in this collection as
an autobiographical statement: Wer groß denkt, muß groß irrenŽ (ED 17; Who
Socialism in 1933 in an act of self-delusion and temporary loss of his critical facul-
Translation from John D. Caputo,
(New York: Fordham UP, 1986) 235.
Herzzeit, Ingeborg Bachmann„ Paul Celan, Der Briefwechsel
, ed. Bertrand
Badiou, Hans Höller, Andrea Stoll, and Barbara Wiedemann (Frankfurt am Main:
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8: Barely explicable power of the
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his Phänotypik der ExistenzŽ (AvS 143…44; phenotypology of existence)
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mous art in the form of the absolute poem. This is for Benn nothing
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bipolaren Spannung herausführtŽ (EuR 514). What prompts the accom-
plishment of this task is the same mysterious force, das Rätselhafte,Ž that
sie, sucht nach pathologischen
Stellen. (EuR 515; my italics)
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The existential moment, which Benn here suggests is crucial, sheds very
(is aware of his feelings, observes them, and writes them down), using
the words that he knows have been allocated to him: er kennt die ihm
gemäße Zuordnung der Worte, formt mit ihnenŽ (EuR 516). This led,
in Georges case, to one of the most beautiful and formally fascinating
autumn- and garden-poems of our time, written in three four-line stanzas
whose form fascinated his contemporaries (EuR 516).
In the process just described, all the notable phenomena take place
inside„ in other words, in the reflected treatment of perceived mood
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In this regard, however„ that is, as phenomenal data that inform the
Gegenstand für die Lyrik als den Lyriker selbst. (EuR 517)
[Behind every poem the author always remains clearly visible, his
essence, his being, his inner situation„ even the subjects that show
up in a poem only do so because they were his before.... What I
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a habitable environment perhaps not for ordinary people, but for the
lonely servants of GegenglückŽ (anti-happiness) and GeistŽ (spirit):
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was mit der Anordnung von Sätzen, Worten, Vokalen an unvergänglicher
Schönheit erreichbar wäreŽ (EuR 510; Flaubert, who at the sight of some
pillars of the Acropolis, envisioned all the immortal beauty made possible
by the arrangement of sentences, words, and vowels). With these words,
Benn is actually quoting himself in an earlier passage from his
called Absolute ProsaŽ (Absolute Prose). Benn continues to move
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sciousness) are confronted by the schwer erklärbare Macht des Wortes,
das löst und fügtŽ (barely explicable power of the word, that separates and
conjoins) at the level of consciousness as well as at the level of speech (EuR
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scripts. But perhaps for us it was only a historically stigmatized problem. [...]
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Benn, including the issue of existence, see Christian Schärf,
Der Unberührbare:
Gottfried Benn„ Dichter im 20. Jahrhundert
Bernhard Sorg (
Gryphius bis Benn
[Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1984]) and Eva M. Lüders (Das lyri-
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In remembered or automated speech, its materiality is hardly ever felt,
ing other associations. Physically, acoustic patternings are what form the
aries of a spoken language are defined, they must be physically articulated
and heard.
Saussure hesitates to use the term signeŽ (sign) for the dualism of
signifier/signified, because his concept is distinct from the Aristotelian
tradition of the representational sign. Moreover, with the dialectics of
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Wandrers Nachtlied
In allen Wipfeln spürest du
Die Vögelein schweigen im Walde.
Warte nur, balde
ruhest du auch.
Wanderers Night Song
/ Over all mountain peaks/ is rest./ In all
tree-tops/ you feel/ scarcely a breath./ The small birds are silent
in the wood./ Just wait, soon/ you will be resting too.]
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campaign against so-called degenerate art.Ž Attitudes to abstract art only
changed very slowly during the fifties in Germany. For example, the first
Kandinsky exhibition in Nuremberg only took place as late as 1955, and
had a strongly polarizing effect on viewers.
By shifting the theater of action away from cultural criticism and ide-
ology to the zero point of language, to what lies before language, Con-
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materialism, because it is not really about material pleasure (that of the
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Transgression
those writers who were strongly influ-
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of the past and of the present that always takes the form of a recycled,
repeated, deconstructed history. But literature as simple (if critical) rep-
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ENATA
that Müllers text performs, every change in the picture means a destruc-
tion of its old form and, as a result, its own destruction and deconstruc-
tion. This structure is therefore shaped by a discontinuity that, ironically,
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captures the emptiness of so-called post-history and questions the sense
of any (social or cultural) revolution that must, by this logic, inevitably
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ENATA
In the same sense, Valmont in the play
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The concept of transgression differs, then, from modern concepts of
the dialectic with its contradictions; its roots are outside any concepts of
ground and origin. It manifests itself as a violent act of sexuality„ as
in the writings of the Marquis de Sade. For de Sade it is sexuality that
endlessly crosses and re-crosses the line of life and death. Sexuality as a
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has therefore the characteristics of Derridas supplementingŽ
than just connotations of transformation and exchange. The supplement
guarantees creativity in a cycle of permanent transformation where the
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happens in the ritual, ritual embodying the transgressive character, the
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ENATA
transformations where the storm freezes, a lost identity for literature can
be found, the otherwise annulled voice of Müllers post-dramatic theater.
For Foucault, the space of the limit is the new-found place of word-
less language. This is therefore the new place for the survival of literature.
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Georges Bataille,
1986), 16. Subsequent references to this work are cited in the text using Bataille
and page number.
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P
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ARRY
to questions of speaking for and with the victims of German violence in
poems such as LACH NIT,Ž Müllers poems, prose and plays from the
1950s onwards can be read as being preoccupied with questions of writ-
ing within a barbarous German modernity, of which 1945 is merely one
further instance.
The three key concepts at the heart of Müllers work on
Germania
are
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ARRY
Tacitus point toward the importance of language in general, and tex-
tuality in particular, as the medium in which history is recorded, trans-
mitted, and repeated. Such reflections on the role of language in the
making of history occur throughout Müllers interviews: Sprache ist
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are two different matters entirely. Müllers
Germania
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of the scene. The play subsequently deconstructs this with the lowest
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ARRY
of thinking, sich erst ereignen könnenŽ (
The poem goes beyond the mere séance in order to engage with the Jew-
ish boy as one of the voices living in meiner Stirn,Ž problematizing the
issue of and partially voicing the UnbezeugtesŽ (un-testified) of Aus-
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ARRY
Heiner Müller, Bildbeschreibung,Ž in
Hörnigk (Berlin: Aufbau, 1989), 13.
Müller makes frequent reference to the experience of Stalingrad and Stalins
KesselŽ-tactics, which is at the heart of
Germania 3
found being in a 1978 interview (GI, 52). These references recur throughout
Wolokolomsker Chaussée
his nächster Text wird unter anderem in Berlin und Stalingrad spielen, und einer
der Protagonisten wird Stalin seinŽ (next text will play among other places in Ber-
lin and Stalingrad and one of the protagonists will be Stalin, GI2 136). The scene
1956Ž seems to have preoccupied Müller since he began
Leben in zwei Diktaturen: Eine Autobiographie
Werke 9
, ed. Frank Hör-
und Ingo Way (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2005), 179…82.
Markus Kreikebaum,
and the New International
, trans. by Peggy Kamuff (New York, London: Rout-
ledge, 1994), 10. Subsequent references are indicated as Derrida, followed by the
page number.
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furt am Main: Suhrkamp, Edition Suhrkamp, 2003), 60. Subsequent references
are indicated as
, followed by the page number.
Giorgio Agamben,
(Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2003 [orig.
1985]), 21. Subsequent references are indicated as
number.
Jean Lyotard, Streitgespräche, oder: Sätze bilden nach Auschwitz,Ž in
Vergessen(e): Anamnesen des Undarstellbaren
(Vienna 1997), 43; and Nico-
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12: Rupture, Tradition, and Achievement
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Botenstoffe
25…26). This less-than-satisfactory situation is, according to
Kling, geradezu Anlaß für meine Generation, die in den 70er Jahren
das Gedichtschreiben begann, andere Wege einzuschlagen, andere, als die
o
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The Final Utterance of the Delphic Oracle IGo tell the king the daedalWalls have fallen to the earth
Phoibos has no sanctuary no
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an insane whining being switched off„ thats the way
it is; like strident whistles from exotic beaks,
just a trickling, clear dripping close to the limit
into your ear. very little sound left
only. thats it, folks.
drying up.]
This second poem, then, is a description of the very final utterance of
the Delphic oracle. Parts of the first poem are quoted, albeit with slight
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of the anthology, there is a direct model for Klings Leonidas II.Ž The
work in question will be quoted in German here in order to illustrate
Klings way of treating the model.
Kleiton gehört die Hütte, gehört auch der dürftige Acker,
gleichfalls das Fleckchen mit Wein, ganz in der Nähe, dazu
dieses Gestrüpp, das ihm Brennholz verschafft. Dies Wenige freilich
hat ihn redlich genährt bis in sein achtes Jahrzehnt.
By simplifying and reducing the structure and wording of the Greek
epigram, following, once more, Rexroths English version of the poem,
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schen schon mehr um eine Art von Survival handelt. (118…19)
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Tradition
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nisten der [...] traditionsnegierenden Bewegungen per definitionem solche, die
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All translations, unless otherwise stated, by Aniela Knoblich.
Versuch zu zeigen, daß Adorno mit seiner Behauptung, nach
Auschwitz lasse sich kein Gedicht mehr schreiben, recht hatte
(Würzburg: Königs-
hausen & Neumann, 2002). Subsequent references to this work are cited in the
text using the abbreviation Bonheim and page number.
Botenstoffe
(Köln: DuMont, 2001), 28. Subsequent references to
this work are cited in the text using the abbreviation
Botenstoffe
and page number.
Fernhandel
quent references to this work are cited in the text using the abbreviation
Fernhan-
and page number.
Hermann Korte, Energie der Brüche. Ein diachroner Blick auf die Lyrik des
20. Jahrhunderts und ihre Zäsuren,Ž in
Lyrik des 20. Jahrhunderts
Ludwig Arnold (München: edition text + kritik, 1999), 63…106; here, 95…96.
(Köln: DuMont, 2002). Subsequent refer-
ences to this work are cited in the text using the abbreviation
number.
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Part III: Comparative Explorations
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13: Sartre and His Literary Alter Ego
Mathieu in
Les Chemins de la liberté
La guerre a vraiment divisé ma vie en deux... Cest là, si vous
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Sartre admitted this identification in a work that spans the period of the
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ITERARY
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struggling to express what was in his mind. He gave it up and
merely said:
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P
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ARTRE
ITERARY
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ATHIEU
to join the Communist Party, but he does not find any reasons for doing
states, he is in his age of reasonŽ and is suspicious of his emotions.
The parallel with the uncommitted Sartre of the 1930s is clear. Shar-
ing a similar disengagement from the world and despite his sympathy for
the French workers and for the Popular Front in Spain, Sartre decided
divert us from our non-political stance.Ž
Like Mathieu at the start of
the trilogy, the freedom that Sartre was looking for in the 1930s was
an individual one. These examples elucidate Sartres process of writing
Mathieu: He writes Mathieu as a Sartre back-in-time,Ž a process in line
with previous writings such as his teenage short story
cesses; he also favors narrow focalized points of view, concentrating on
individual characters in order to highlight their subjectivity, a technique
that he admired in American writers, especially William Faulkner and
John Dos Passos, whom he praised in different articles and re-read dur-
ing the Phoney War.
In other words, Sartres conception of literature
matches his philosophy: For him, there is no God, no revealed truthŽ
and no truth to revealŽ; the plot cannot be anticipated as it depends on
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Sartre is on the French eastern border during the Phoney War at the begin-
ning of 1940 when he announces to Simone de Beauvoir that the first
Les Chemins de la liberté
is finished. However, he immediately
evaluates what he has written as flimsy,Ž as an insincere and gratuitous
lie,Ž admitting that the novel had probably suffered, not from the war,
but from the change of [his] points of view on everythingŽ (
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ARTRE
ITERARY
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ATHIEU
of history through his mobilization, Mathieu realizes that he is caught
up by forces beyond human scaleŽ (
exists in language, then style is identity,Ž claims Lennard Davis;
this more specifically, several major literary changes in the writing of
reinforce the emergency of the situation and the change of focus in
Sartres philosophy.
First, Mathieu fades into the background of the novel due to its
LÂge de raison
, the action here does not take place exclu-
sively in Paris but in various places in France, Europe, and North Africa.
More significantly, the number of characters rises from a dozen in
LÂge
, among whom the reader discovers
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acters are still presented in a subjective way, with no omniscience
and little external focalization, but they are presented in an acceler-
ated rhythm as the novel progresses. Polyphonic and even cacophonic
at times, several voices spanning places across Europe are often heard in
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ARTRE
ITERARY
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ATHIEU
original French version is reduced to the two first syllables (premiŽ).
It is only progressively that the reader can identify the first narrator as
Mathieu, due to the references he makes to some other characters. The
voice of Mathieu is constantly and abruptly interrupted by an intrusive
and authoritarian second voice (in italics), which the reader can almost
immediately identify as Hitlers, due to its portentous (and populist) pub-
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his new stand through Philippe and not Mathieu: La guerre... est un
fait humain, créé par des volontés libres. Il est impossible de le considérer
comme une maladie douloureuse contre laquelle le stoïcisme simple est
ricity. That is roughly what Heidegger says). Further, Sartre adds: Être
authentique, cest réaliser pleinement son être-en-situationŽ (
o
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ARTRE
ITERARY
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ATHIEU
bourgeois
float, you are abstract, absent).
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change, to be authentic and to refuse what he calls les situations faussesŽ
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ARTRE
ITERARY
LTER
ATHIEU
buggers face„ Thou shalt not kill„ bang! at the scarecrow oppo-
site. He was firing on his fellow Men, on Virtue, on the whole World.
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Mathieus final act can also be seen as a literary response to Drieu and a
criticism of fascism, which is Terror,Ž
action without reason. In other
words, Mathieus final act also illustrates what Sartre claimed to be during
résistant
who was writing but a writer who was resist-
But whereas Sartre acted through his writing, Mathieu„ defined by
Sartre moins lécritureŽ
(Sartre minus the writing)
„ had no
other solution than to throw himself directly into action.
Paradoxically,
then, by doing so, Mathieus final act is simultaneously the closest to and
the furthest from Sartres own stand.
Les Chemins de la liberté
spans Sartres major philosophi-
cal and literary crisis, induced by the Second World War. Through the
writing of its main character and partial literary alter ego, Sartre found
an alternative„ and probably freer, since fiction protectsŽ
„ way to
express the changes that affected him during these crucial years. Sartres
increasing concern for the others is clearly reflected by the way the trilogy
unfolds in which the main character, Mathieu, is caught by history like his
fellow Frenchmen and women and like the other Europeans. The neces-
sity of freedomŽ
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P
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ARTRE
ITERARY
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ATHIEU
Paris: Gallimard, 1943.
Isabelle Grell,
Les Chemins de la liberté
de Sartre: genè
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Lennard J. Davis,
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ARTRE
ITERARY
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ATHIEU
Unpublished interview with John Gerassi (1973), quoted by Michel Contat
and Michel Rybalka, in Jean-Paul Sartre,
Oeuvres romanesques
and Michel Rybalka (Paris: Gallimard, Bibliothè
iade, 1981), LVIII.
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P
M
SWALD
unwiderruflich, aber sie sind mit innerster Not-
wendigkeit immer wieder erreicht worden. (
Untergang
[For every Culture has
time the two words, hitherto used to express an indefinite, more or
from which the deepest and gravest problems of historical morphol-
ogy become capable of solution. Civilizations are the most exter-
nal and artificial states of which a species of developed humanity is
capable. They are a conclusion, the thing-become succeeding the
and that he, either knowingly or unwittingly, misconceptualized what the
German philosopher was actually trying to say. In particular, the concept
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P
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SWALD
ence, for example: Es steht der einzelnen nicht frei, für sich zu warten,
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P
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SWALD
It should also be noted that, as we have seen above, there is a good deal
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P
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SWALD
In the first episode, the fictitious conference at Altenburg assembles a
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P
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SWALD
Je savais maintenant ce que signifient les mythes antiques des êtres
arrachés aux morts. A peine si je me souvenais de la mort; ce que je
o
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P
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SWALD
in Indian culture. As narrator, Malraux moves to include other narrative
voicesŽ„ a favorite polyphonic technique of his„ which lead to the
The authors centrifugal technique,Ž as Geoffrey Harris calls it, finds
o
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SWALD
been engaged from early on in his career in proving Spengler wrong, this
was, in some respects, his response to the First World War as well.
o
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The Decline of the West
, whereas Mal-
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SWALD
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Catastrophe and Creativity in the
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put it in other words, they serve as the prism through which the past is
refracted. As in the Talmudist tradition, Kis novel gives us the origi-
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scene unfamiliar, thereby precluding the possibility of automatic percep-
tion. The brain is compared to a lambs brain served whole,Ž making of
the brains owner a holy, sacrificial animal.
And the watery site of the
crime, the Danube River that swallowed the victims corpses, becomes
the Danubius Restaurant where the lambs brain is served up.
o
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processes, madness, and ingenuity converge. If these incompatible ele-
ments were not linked, the incommensurable matrices from which the
o
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P
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P
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past and to bear witness. His literature also seeks to demonstrate that
o
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P
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Shoah
and the
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ERT
dissipation of its explicitness? What would that Without-SubjectŽ of
Derridas be, the subject that speaks without uttering itself in a linguis-
tic way, but rather hides itself behind silence, as a sort of
which undermines the
of the logos precisely while succumbing
Schweigende Tropen
Or we might think with Gilles Deleuze and Giorgio Agamben about
ture of naked, biological lifeŽ with its bare potentiality, which communes
with its decomposing reality, and which manifests itself precisely at the
moment of its death struggle.
cal elements of subjectivity and reunites them as a loose conglomerate of
contingent clusters, in a pragmatic patch-working process that can be reit-
o
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P
M
ERT
annihilation of the human subject. Non-representation is not an option.
Commentators from Adorno to Lanzmann and Nancy have asserted as
much. Je ne veux pas entendre parler de
o
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ERT
o
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Works Cited
Achberger, Karen. Kunst als Veränderndes: Bachmann and Brecht.Ž
Adorno, Theodor W.
o
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„„„.Stichworte: Kritische Modelle 2.Ž In
Bd. 10.2, edited by Rolf Tiedemann, 597…99. Frankfurt am
Agamben, Giorgio.
Homo sacer. Die souveräne Macht und das nackte
Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2002.
„„„.
Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life
. Translated by Daniel
Heller-Roazen. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.
„„„.
. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2003 [orig. 1985].
„„„.
Notes on Gesture.Ž In
neapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2000.
„„„.
Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the Archive.
New York: Zone
„„„.
Was von Auschwitz bleibt. Das Archiv und der Zeuge.
Frankfurt am
Aichinger, Ilse. Gespräch mit Hermann Vinke, 1980.Ž In
edited by Samuel Moser, 30…35. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1990.
„„„.
Die größere Hoffnung.
Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 2005 (1947).
„„„.
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Friedlander, Saul, ed.
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(1956). Erweiterte Neuausgabe,
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von Pierre und Ilse
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Werke und Briefe
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Frankfurt am
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s: Bataille, Caillois, Leiris, Malraux, Sartre
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berühmten Diktum T.W. Adornos.Ž In
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1950er Jahren.Ž In
, edited by Heinz Ludwig Arnold, 3rd
Text + Kritik
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(Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View,
Vermischte Schriften von Immanuel Kant.
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Auschwitz im Widerstreit: zur Darstellung der Shoah in Film, Phi-
. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag, 1999.
„„„. W
ahr sind die Sätze als Impuls...: Begriffsarbeit und sprachli-
che Darstellung in Adornos Reflexion auf Auschwitz.Ž
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Alptraum: Deutschland.Ž Traumversionen und Traumvisionen
Freiburg im Breisgau: Rombach, 2008.
Lyotard, Jean. Streitgespräche, oder: Sätze bilden nach Auschwitz.Ž In
Das Vergessen(e). Anamnesen des Undarstellbaren
len and E. Weber. Vienna: Turia+Kant, 1997.
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Discours, figure
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Antimémoires
Oeuvres com-
plètes dAndré Malraux
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Müller, Heiner.
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Hörnigk. Berlin: Aufbau, 1989.
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Bildbeschreibung
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, edited by Gregor
Edelmann und Renate Ziemer. 2nd ed. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag der
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Gregor
Edelmann und Renate Ziemer. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag der Autoren,
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Stuttgart: Teubner, 1997.
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„„„.
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edited by Gudrun Brokoph-Mauch and
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„„„. Pr
, Stuttgart:
Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1964.
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Weber, Regina.
. Frankfurt
Weinrich, Harald.
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P
M
is Professor Emeritus in Linguistics at the Seminar für
Deutsche Literatur und Sprache, Hanover University, and Dean of Liter-
ary and Linguistic Studies. He was a member of the Bielefelder Collo-
quium Neue Poesie, and was awarded the State of Lower Saxonys artists
scholarship in 1987. A widely published author, his literary publicati-
grundrisse
die freude kafkas beim bügeln, die freude
mozarts beim kegeln, die freude bismarcks beim stricken
his academic books are
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M
, PhD, lectured in German at the University of Limerick
and is adjunct lecturer in Mary Immaculate College, University of Limer-
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exotic in the German literary tradition, as well as transatlantic cross-cur-
rents in postmodern and postcolonial literature, film, and cultural theory.
ARTIN
is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the School of Modern Lan-
guages, Literatures and Cultures at the National University of Ireland
Maynooth. She is currently researching the colonial discourse in inter-
war Germany. Her publications include articles on Theodor W. Adorno,
Nelly Sachs, Rose Ausländer, Fanny Lewald, and Kathrin Röggla. Minor
projects currently in progress include articles on Inke Pareis
and Judith Hermanns
. Her doctoral dissertation will be
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P
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Königshausen & Neumann in 2010. She has recently published Das
Spiel als das Dynamische: Der Begriff des Spiels zwischen Moderne und
PostmoderneŽ (2009).
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Brasillach. His research contributes to ongoing critical debate on the
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absurd, the, 96, 115, 118, 128, 250,
Adorno, Theodor W., 1…14, 19…34, 36,
42…44, 47, 49, 51, 55, 66, 98…100,
105…6, 126, 132, 163, 166…68,
180…84, 190…95, 197…99, 201…3,
Adorno, Theodor W., works by:
lektik der Aufklärung
Archiv und der Zeuge
Aichinger, Ilse, 9, 88…106
Aichinger, Ilse, works by:
Aufruf zum
88, 103; Gebirgsrand,
Die größere Hoffnung
96, 105; In das Land Salzburg
Bund,Ž 93; Rauchenberg,Ž 93;
Verschenkter Rat
Winterrichtung,Ž 90…92
Alberti, Rafael, 130
ambiguity, 9, 20, 61, 70, 74, 76,
Anders, Günther, works by:
Tage-
Andersch, Alfred, 132, 212…13
Andersch, Alfred, works by:
Der Vater
eines Mörders
extermination
Apollinaire, Guillaume, 130
Arendt, Hannah, 98, 100…101, 106,
artistry; artistic practice, 4…5, 8,
Sprachartistik
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Ausländer, Rose, 9, 69, 71…72; com-
Ausländer, Rose, works by: 24 Stun-
76; Antwortlos,Ž 86; Doppelt,Ž
Forbidden Tree
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Die Struktur
der modernen Lyrik
García Lorca, Frederico, 130
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ineffability, 98.
Ingaarden, Roman, 134
initiation rites; initiation process, 36,
; inwardness, 61, 140,
intertext; intertextuality, 10, 83,
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Luxemburg, Rosa, 193, 196…97
Lyotard, Jean, 83, 87, 193, 199
Malraux, André, 11, 237, 239…52
Malraux, André, works by:
moires
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revolution, 94, 159, 170, 173, 177,
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spirituality, 244, 246
Sprachartistik
(language artistry), 102
Srebnik, Simon, 270
Staiger, Emil, 134, 145
Stein, Gertrude, 164
Stekel, Wilhelm, works by:
Träume der Dichter
Sternberger, Dolf, works by:
Wörterbuch eines Unmenschen
Die Wandlung
subjectivity, 10, 21, 24, 31, 70, 76,
surrealism, 55, 57, 110, 112…13, 115,
surveillance, 114…15, 117
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German and European
E
D BY
E
RT
R
AC
HE
L
M
G
H
AM
H
RÁIN

PAJ
E
VI
´
C
M
IC
H
A
E
L
H
I
E
LD
S
risis presents chances for change and creativity: Adorno’s
GERT HOFMANN
is a Lecturer in German, Comparative Literature,
Drama, and Film, and
R
A
CH
EL
M
G
AM
H
RÁIN
is a Lecturer in
German, Film, and Comparative Literature, both at University College
M
ARKO PAJEVI
C
is a Lecturer in German at Queen’s University
M
I
CH
AEL
SH
IELDS
is a Lecturer in German at the National
University of Ireland, Galway.
Denkmal zur Erinnerung an die Bücherverbrennung
(Monument in Remembrance of
the Book Burning) on the Bebelplatz, Berlin. Photograph by and courtesy of Tina Stephan.
Cover Design: Frank Gutbrod
E
D BY
M
G
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AM
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PAJ
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