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Antonymic translation is a complex transformation when a source language construction is shifted to a target language construction, whose components are of opposite meanings.
substituting a word with its antonym
substituting a negative sentence with an affirmative one and vice versa
shifting the position of a negative component
CONVERSIVE TRANSFORMATIONEx. 1 They remain just as clearly divided in my mind as before. – Мысленно я по-прежнему их четко разграничиваю.
Ex. 2 Authorized personnel only. – Посторонним вход воспрещен.SHIFTING NEGATIVE MODALITYEx. 3 Hold on the line, please. – Не вешайте трубку. Keep off the grass. – По газонам не ходить. Stay out of the sun. – На солнце лежать нельзя.Ex. 4 I am not displeased to hear from you. – Я весьма рад получить от вас весточку.Ex. 5 It was not until 1959 that chemists succeeded in obtaining this component. – Только в 1959 году химикам удалось получить этот компонент.
Ex. 6 The reaction did not start until the next morning. – Реакция началась только на следующее утро.Ex.7
heavy books – тяжелые книги;
heavy crop – богатый урожай;
heavy sky – затянутое небо;
heavy traffic – большое движение; heavy rain – сильный дождь;
heavy sea – бурное море;
heavy penalty – суровое наказание.
Ex. 8 Old birds are not to be caught with chaff. – Старого воробья на мякине не проведешь.
Ex. 9 He went to the shop to get some milk. – Он пошел в магазин купить молока.
Adverbial verbs:
verbs expressing movement accompanied by some sound
Verbs expressing a shift from one place into another
verbs expressing transition from one state to another
causative verbs
verbs expressing cause and effect
Ex. 10 The Tatar cavalry burned its way through Eastern Europe. – Сжигая все на своем пути, татарская конница пронеслась по Восточной Европе.Synonym condensation - usage of a number of parallel synonyms which are very close in meaning: Ex. 11 The government resorted to force and violence. - Правительство прибегло к насилию.A compound is a unit of vocabulary which consists of more than one lexical stem functioning as a single item, with its own meaning and grammar. For example, secondhand, waterbike; солнцестояние, водонепроницаемый.Ex. 12 They say that what’s-his-name fellow has been staying at her house ever since he came to town.
Relations between the compound elements and their meanings
predicate relations, i.e. subject to verb: earthquake (the earth quakes), headache; землетрясение, снегопад;
object relations, i.e. verb to object: scarecrow (scares crows), sightseeing; водомер, бракодел;
attribute relations: goldfish, postman; чернозём, голубоглазый;
adverbial relations: much-improved (improved a lot), night-flying (flying at night); вышеупомянутый, долгоиграющий.
Translation of compounds
another compound
analoguecalquehalf-calquetranscription or transliteration
explication and extension
substitution of one or both of the components
Conversion is transferring a word from one part of speech to another without the use of an affix.
directions of conversion
a verb may come from a noun: to word, to bicycle, to water;
a noun may come from a verb: a try, a drive, a drive-in; that’s a must;
an adjective may be converted to a noun: a round, a monthly, the bitter;
an adjective may be changed to a verb: to empty, to better, to calm down;
adverb to noun: Yesterday was my birthday;
a structural word may be converted to a noun: too many ifs and buts;
affix to noun: “ologies” and “isms”;
grammatical word to verb: to down tools; to up and do it.
Ex. 13 What can you do with a woman who sits and sponges all day long? – Что поделаешь с женщиной, которая весь день только и сидит, напиваясь, как сапожник. Enjoy your food. Don’t just wolf it down.- Наслаждайся пищей. Не набрасывайся на нее, как волк.
Ex. 14 И до фронта ведь не дошла лошаденка-то…- Never got as far as the front, poor thing. Людей тут скоро без разбору, а он над лошаденкой… - They’ll soon be slaughtering us, all and sundry, out there and he sits crying over a bloody horse! (Ю.Бондарев. Transl. by S. Vasilyev)
Ex. 15 First they went to a little restaurant near some railroad tracks. (J.Oats) – Сперва они пошли в ресторанчик возле железной дороги.
ABBREVIATIONGraphical abbreviations
Phonetic abbreviations
Lexical abbreviations

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