Summary Level 11

Summary Level 11
I’m over her
она мне уже не интересна

stretch /stret
·/
тянуть(ся)

They rock!
Они круты!

live /la
·v/
вживую

ahead of time
заранее

chap stick
бальзам для губ

no big deal / no biggie
ничего страшного, ничего особенного

closet
шкаф, кладовая, чулан

couch /kau
·/
диван

She is onto us!
Она нас раскусила!

to store
хранить

loosen /'lu:s
·n/
расслабить

I have a shot
У меня есть шанс

crap
poop

underpants
underwear

He went overboard
Он перестарался

stick to smth
придерживаться чего-то

let's wrap (it up)
давайте закругляться

stage
ступень, этап

adjustment /
·
·d
·
·stm
·nt/
приспособление, адаптация

recover (from)
приходить в себя, выздоравливать

preoccupied /pri
·
·kjupa
·d/ with cleanliness /
·klenlin
·s/
озабочен (чистотой)

rob
ограбить

cheat
обманывать

confused
смущенный, растерянный

expatriate /
·eks
·pжtri
·t/
экспатриант; человек, покинувший родину

eventually /
·
·vent
·u
·li/
в конце концов

deal (with smth)
разобраться, уладить (проблему)

integrate
интегрировать, объединять, включать

occasional /
·
·ke
·
·
·nl/
редкий, происходящий время от времени

acceptance /
·k
·sept
·ns/
принятие, одобрение

fit in
присп-ся, вписаться

identity /a
·
·dent
·ti/
личность, самосознание

fascinating /
·fжs
·ne
·t
·
·/
вызывающий острый интерес; захватывающий

frustrated /fr
·
·stre
·t
·d/
раздраженный, разочарованный из-за ощущения бессилия

frustration /fr
·
·stre
·
·n/
досада, чувство безысходности, бессилия

British/American


biscuits/cookies
печенье

return ticket/round trip ticket
билеты в оба конца

lift/elevator
лифт

cinema/movies
кино(театр)

trousers/pants
брюки

holiday/vacation
отпуск

to post/mail
отправить почтой

parcel/package
посылка

telly/TV
телевидение/телевизор

terrific/awesome
классный


queue/line
очередь

autumn/fall
осень

jumper/sweater
свитер, кофта

sweets/candies
конфеты

crisps/chips
чипсы

rubbish/garbage
мусор

football/soccer
футбол

flat/apartment
квартира

chips/(French) fries
картофель фри

film/movie
фильм

petrol/gas
бензин

loo/restroom
туалет

bill/check
счёт

common /
·k
·m
·n/
обычный, прост. происх-я

(social) background
происхождение

particularly /p
·
·t
·kj
·l
·li/
особенно, прежде всего

emerge /i
·m
·
·d
·/
появляться, возникать

split up
расставаться, разрывать отношения

inappropriate /
·
·n
·
·pr
·
·pri
·t/
неуместный

address smb.
обращаться к кому-то

behaviour /b
·
·he
·vj
·/
поведение

list
список, включать в список, перечислять

regard as /r
·
·
·
·
·d/
относиться, рассм. как

suburbs /
·s
·b
·
·bz/
пригород, окраина

recall /r
·
·k
·
·l/
вспоминать

overhear
случайно услышать

inhabitant /
·n
·hжb
·t
·nt/
житель, обитатель

napkin
салфетка

attempt /
·
·tempt/
попытка

well-meaning
действующий из лучших побуждений

refer to
ссылаться: зд.: в отношении

steer clear (of smth)
держаться подальше от

prestigious /pre
·st
·d
·
·s/
престижный

aspire to /
·
·spa
·
·/
стремиться, добиваться ч-то

in the meantime
а пока; между тем

jet lag
синдром смены часовых поясов

can't keep my eyes open
засыпаю

wiped out
"выжатый", измотанный

stretch out
прилечь, «растянуться»

get a second wind
открылось второе дыхание

ups and downs
подъемы и спады

scratch the surface /
·s
·
·f
·s/
не вдаваясь в подробности

it hit home/me
до меня дошло, я осознал

get out of my rut
выбраться из рутины

be in a rut
зациклиться на чем-то, застрять в рутине

hop on/in
запрыгивать, садиться
(в машину, самолет и т.п.)

to top that off
вдобавок ко всему

broach the subject /br
·
·t
·/
поднять вопрос/проблему

sleep on it
решать проблемы утром на свежую голову




Country
Adjective
The people
One person

Spain
Japan
China
France
USA
Russia
Sweden /
·swi
·dn/
Switzerland
England
Britain
Thailand /
·ta
·lжnd/
Greece
Poland
Spanish
Japanese
Chinese
French
American
Russian
Swedish /
·swi
·d
·
·/
Swiss
English
British
Thai /ta
·/
Greek
Polish
the Spanish, Spaniards
the Japanese
the Chinese
the French
Americans
Russians
Swedes /swi
·dz/
the Swiss
the English
the British
Thais /ta
·z/
Greeks
Poles
a Spaniard
a Japanese
a Chinese
a Frenchman/woman
an American
a Russian
a Swede
a Swiss
an Englishman/woman
a British person
a Thai
a Greek
a Pole

Reading:
stretch /stret
·/, chap stick, couch /kau
·/, loosen /'lu:s
·n/, adjustment /
·
·d
·
·stm
·nt/, preoccupied /pri
·
·kjupa
·d/ with cleanliness /
·klenlin
·s/, expatriate /
·eks
·pжtri
·t/, eventually /
·
·vent
·u
·li/, occasional /
·
·ke
·
·
·nl/, acceptance /
·k
·sept
·ns/, identity /a
·
·dent
·ti/, fascinating /
·fжs
·ne
·t
·
·/, frustrated /fr
·
·stre
·t
·d/, frustration /fr
·
·stre
·
·n/, common /
·k
·m
·n/, particularly /p
·
·t
·kj
·l
·li/, emerge /i
·m
·
·d
·/, inappropriate /
·
·n
·
·pr
·
·pri
·t/, behaviour /b
·
·he
·vj
·/, regard as /r
·
·
·
·
·d/, suburbs /
·s
·b
·
·bz/, recall /r
·
·k
·
·l/, inhabitant /
·n
·hжb
·t
·nt/, attempt /
·
·tempt/, prestigious /pre
·st
·d
·
·s/, aspire to /
·
·spa
·
·/, surface /
·s
·
·f
·s/, broach /br
·
·t
·/

PN Awkward Situations /
·
·
·kw
·d/
preparing the ground

There’s smth I’d like to / I’ve been meaning to talk to you about.
Есть кое-что, о чем я хотел с тобой поговорить.

giving the message

I hope you don’t take this the wrong way, but
Надеюсь, что ты меня правильно поймешь

I don’t want you to get the wrong idea, but
Не хочу, чтобы ты пронял меня неправильно, но

It’s just that (you know you borrowed/you said you’d)
Просто ты (взял у меня взаймы/сказал, что ты)

suggesting a solution

I have a suggestion/an idea!
У меня есть предложение/идея

It would put my mind at ease if you (V2)
Я бы успокоился, если

I’d feel better if you (V2)
Я бы почувствовал себя лучше, если

getting the other person’s point of view

Do you see where I’m coming from?
Понимаешь, о чем я?

How does that sound?
Как тебе это?

How would you feel about that?
Как бы ты себя чувствовал?

Do you know what I mean?
Понимаешь, что я имею в виду?


Name
Gerund

Rule
We use the Gerund
1) after some verbs (we have to remember them): risk, love, like, hate, stop

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·(чей?) and nouns (’s) are used before -ing forms.
# Do you mind my smoking?
# She was angry at Lina's trying to lie to her.
Subject
Pronouns
Possessive pronouns:
Object pronouns


I
my
me

2. In an informal style it is more common to use object forms
# Do you mind me smoking?
# She was angry at Lina trying to lie to her.
you
your
you


he
his
him


she
her
her

NB: After some verbs (see, hear, watch, feel) possessives are not normally used with -ing forms. Use object pronouns !
# I saw him getting
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·чтобы) # He’s saving money to buy a car.
3. after adjectives # My flat is easy to find.

Structure
(to) + V: (to) write, (to) stand
Infinitive can be:
1. Active (to) V # It’s nice to kiss in the morning. # I must go to school
2. Passive (to) be V3 # It’s nice to be kissed # I must be kissed
Negative form not (to) V # It’s nice not to kiss in the morning. # I must not go to school
# There are a lot of people not to be kissed. # She must not be kissed today.

Special Features
1. More verbs are used with the Infinitive than with the Gerund!
2. Some verbs are used with the Infinitive or the Gerund with no difference in meaning: begin, continue, prefer, start etc.
3. It's better to use the Gerund as subject # To practise regularly is important.
# Practicing regularly is important. or # It's important to practise regularly.


Bare Infinitive
Infinitive without to (bare infinitive) is used after:

1. Modal verbs:
# I must go

2. Let:
# Let him do it.

3. See, hear, feel, watch, notice:
# I didn’t see you come in

4. Make (smb do smth):
# It makes me think so.
NB 1: In the Passive use the infinitive with to.
# He was made to pay back the money.

5. Have smb do smth:
# He had the bouncers throw them out of the club.
Structure: Let/see/make/have + Object Pronoun + Bare infinitive


NB 2: But: get smb to do smth (заставить/попросить к-то ч-то сделать)
The teacher got us to stay a little later.

6. Why (not):
# Why not do it now

NB 3: After do, help and dare you can but don’t have to use to
# All I did was (to) give him a little push.
# Could you help me (to) unload the car?


BRITISH VS AMERICAN GRAMMAR

AMERICAN

The present perfect is more common:
I've lost my key. Have you seen it?
(or I lost my key. Did you see it?)
Pr. Perfect is more common with just, already and yet
I'm not hungry. I've just had lunch. (or I just had lunch.)
He's already left.
Have you finished work yet?
The past simple is more common:
I lost my key. Did you see it?
(or I've lost my key. Have you seen it?)
Past Simple is more common with just, already and yet.
I'm not hungry. I just had lunch. (or I've just had lunch.)
He already Left.
Did you finish work yet?

British speakers usually say:
have a bath, have a shower, have a break, have a holiday
American speakers say:
take a bath, take a shower, take a break, take a vacation

at the weekend/at weekends:
Will you be here at the weekend?
on the weekend/on weekends:
Will you be here on the weekend?

at university/school
She studied chemistry at university.
in university/school
She studied French in high school.

write to smb.
I promised to write to her every day.
write smb.
I promised to write her every day.

at the front/at the back (of a group etc.)
Let's sit at the front (of the cinema).
in the front/in the back (of a group etc.):
Let's sit in the front (of the movie theater).

Nouns like government/team/family etc. can have a singular or plural verb:
The team is/are playing well.
These nouns normally take a singular verb in
American English:
The team is playing well.

Some verbs (burn, spell etc.) can be regular or irregular (burned/burnt, spelled/spelt etc.)
V3 of get is got: Your English has got much better.
Verbs are often regular (burned, spelled etc.)

V3 of get is gotten: Your English has gotten much better.


BRITISH VS AMERICAN SPELLING
1. Words ending in –re
British English words that end in -re often end in -er in American English:
British
US
British
US

centre
center
litre
liter

fibre
fiber
theatre
theater or theatre


2. Words ending in -our
British English words ending in -our usually end in -or in American English:
British
US
British
US
British
US

colour
color
humour
humor
neighbour
neighbor

flavour
flavor
labour
labor
odour
odor


3. Words ending in -ize or -ise
Verbs in British English that can be spelled with either -ize or -ise at the end are always spelled with -ize at the end in American English. Verbs in British English that end in -yse are always spelled -yze in American English:
 British
US

apologize or apologise
apologize

organize or organise
organize

recognize or recognise
recognize


British
US

analyse
analyze

paralyse
paralyze


4. Words ending in a vowel plus l
In British spelling, verbs ending in a vowel plus l double the l when adding endings that begin with a vowel. In American English, the l is not doubled:
British
US
British
US

travel
travel
travelling
traveling

travelled
traveled
traveller
traveler


5. Nouns ending with –ence
Some nouns that end with -ence in British English are spelled -ense in American English:
 British
US
 British
US

defence
defense
offence
offense

licence
license
pretence
pretense


6. Nouns ending with –ogue
Some nouns that end with -ogue in British English end with either -og or -ogue in American English:
 British
US
British
US

analogue
analog or analogue
dialogue
dialog or dialogue

catalogue
catalog or catalogue




BRITISH VS AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION
Rule 1 In Br. Eng. r не произносится в сочетании гласная + r + согласная, а также в конце слова
1. birth 2. turn 3. learn 4. work 5. germ 6. farm 7. other 8. clever 9. director
Rule 2 In Am. Eng. в конце слова t не произносится 1. what 2. cut
Rule 3 In Am. Eng. между гласными t превращается в d
1. Saturday 2. waiter 3. matter 4. at a 5. what about 6. party 7. sort of 8. part of
Rule 4 In Am. Eng. после n не произносим t
1. centre(er) 2. interview 3. internet


Br. Eng.
Am. Eng.

Br. Eng.
Am. Eng.

z
zed
zi
·
patent

·pe
·tnt

·pжtnt

new
nju
·
nu
·
apricot

·e
·pr
·k
·t

·жpr
·k
·
·t

adult (взрослый)

·жd
·lt

·
·d
·lt
vase
v
·
·z
ve
·s

brochure

·br
·
·
·
·
bro
·
·
·
·r
hurricane

·h
·r
·k
·n

·h
·
·r
·ke
·n

garage

·
·жr
·d
·

·
·
·r
·
·
·
enquiry/inquiry запрос

·n
·kwa
·
·ri

·
·nkw
·ri

address

·
·dres

·жdres
leisure св. время, отдых

·le
·
·

·li
·
·
·r

laboratory
l
·
·b
·r
·tri

·lжbr
·t
·
·ri




route (маршрут, путь)
ru
·t
ra
·t




advertisement

·d
·v
·
·t
·sm
·nt

·жdv
·r
·ta
·zm
·nt
either

·a
·р
·

·i
·р
·r

controversy противор ситуация
k
·n
·tr
·v
·si

·k
·
·ntr
·v
·
·rsi
neither

·na
·р
·

·ni
·р
·r



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