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ПЛЕХАНОВСКАЯ ОЛИМПИАДА ШКОЛЬНИКОВ

(очный тур 2011
-
2012 учебный год)






READING COMPREHENSION


Part 1


You are goin
g to read an article about tourism in the Seychelles. Eight sentences have been
removed . For questions
1
-

8

choose the most suitable sentence from the list

A
-

I.

There is one
extra sentence which you don't have to use.
Transfer your answers to the a
nswer sheet
.







A

FRIGILE


SANCTUARY


Nobody visited the Seychelles much until 1971 when Male airport was opened and the world could
flood in. Now more than half the country's foreign exchange earnings come from tourism.

1


Coming fairly late into the tourism business means that the painful lessons of the older world
have been well studied. The beauty and unspoiled nature of th
e islands are carefully protected
.


2


Patrols clean the beaches daily and the sea is constantly monitored for signs of pollution which,
when detected, are quickly dealt with.



3

Because the amount of visitors must be limited to protect the en
vironment, the quality of the
tourist matters a great deal. Lindsay Chong Seng, a highly committed conservationist in the
Ministry of Tourism, considers the economics extremely important: you have to earn as much as
you can from each tourist if numbers ar
e to be kept down. "A perfect tourist is active, hires a car,
flies to other islands, takes boat trips, eats out, goes diving, spends money. We don't just want to be

a beach resort.

4

This has been the fate of all too many tourist resorts in the Med
iterranean, with
disastrous consequences."


Quality visitors are also those who come mainly to appreciate and enjoy the Seychelles' natural
beauty. This can sometimes mean discomfort.

5

"If it rains, that's nature, that's good. If the
wind blo
ws seaweed up on the beaches, that's nature. They say they come to see nature, they've got
to put up with it".



6

The international travel business has, over the last twenty years, made the mistake of letting
the Seychelles be sold in Europe as a "
holiday paradise" and, in so doing, they miss the point.


Tourists are now going who should probably not bother
-

like ladies in elegant shoes who will
not follow muddy walkways through the wetland nature reserves; or the man in the glass
-
bottomed
bo
at who, looking at the fish city beneath him, could only ask if the specimens could be eaten or
not. Many others, more inclined for adventure and safari and the wonders of the world, do not go.



7

Probably some rich, green
-
minded Westerners avoid
it because of a guilty feeling that
tourism spoils such places.


8




A

Not all do so.


B

When you get mass tourists without a lot of spending money, all you find is that the shops


do no business and the local bus se
rvice is overcrowded.


C


No Seychelles hotel is allowed to rise above the surrounding palm trees and none may get


rid of waste into the sea.


D


Atteville Ceydras, the nature warden on one of the islands, says that tourists hav
e got to


accept nature.


E

There are plenty of other more exotic, more exciting destinations.

2



F

It is a very difficult target to achieve.


G

After a brief period of package holidays and mass tourism, the current policy

is to attract


the "quality visitor".


H

But in this case tourism need not, and poverty surely would.



I

This is an industry which could, if not managed properly, destroy the environment.







1.
3




Part 2


For questions
9
-

14

match the statements , which descri
be number systems in different cultures,
with the cultures and languages

A
-

F



Transfer your answers to the answer sheet


In
Rarities in Numeral Systems
,
Harald Hammarstrom lists 12 South American languages that lack
exact numbers above one. He
prefers to call these systems 'one
-
few
-
many', since there are usually
words in these languages for 'few' and 'many'. He also mentions two languages that have no exact
numbers. The most studied of these is
Piraha
, which is spoken by only about 400 people. I
t has a
word for 'about one' and a word for 'about two'. As if that wasn't fuzzy enough, the words for 'about
one' and 'about two' are the same
-

hoi
-

the only difference being a change in inflection.


The Amazonian Indians whose sense of number has

been most closely studied are the
Munduruku,

who have numerical words only up to five. Animals and babies are good at
discriminating quantities above five, so one would expect that the Indians are too
-

even though
they do not have words to express such a
mounts. And this is exactly what experiments conducted
more than five dots on a screen, the
Munduruku

scored just as high as
Westerners
. When Pica
looked mor
e closely at the Munduruku's number words, he realised that only their words for one
and two were used with any sense of exactness. The words for three, four and five were
approximations
-

as if what they meant to say was 'threeish', 'fourish' and 'fiveish
'. In this aspect, the
Munduruku are just like the 'one
-
two
-
many' tribes, who also have exact numbers only up to two.


When
Indians

do learn numbers, in fact, they appear uninterested by them. A Piraha girl was
once taken out of the village to receive

medical treatment. During her time with Brazilians she
learnt some Portuguese and how to count in Portuguese. No problem. But after returning to the
community, while she retained some Portuguese she quickly forgot how to count.


Anthropologists first
reached communities on the other side of the world, in Papua New Guinea,
their whole bodies. The natives started with the fingers and thumb of one hand

for one to five, but
then carried on for higher numbers with wrist, elbow, shoulders, sternum and so on. For example,
one tribe, the
Yupno
, go as high as 34: their word for 34 is 'one dead man'. These Papuan 'body
-
tally' systems are unusual because almost



In the Amazon there are also tribes with bases of two, three and four. For example, the
Waimiri

have words for one to three, and then say '3+1', '3+2', '3+3', '3+3+1', '3+3+2' and '3+3+3'.


Our base ten system of the digits zero to nine, which has its origins in

India,

is now in use all
over the developed world. It is a natural system, but for several hundred years mathematicians have
questioned whether it is the wisest base for us to have. T
he campaign for adding two new numbers,
so that our system becomes base 12, is still active
-

the argument is to do with the extra divisibility
of 12 compared with ten, since 12 can be divided by two, three, four and six while ten can be
divided only by tw
o and five. In fact, there are humans that already use base 12: and almost all of
them belong to the tribes of the Plateau area of northern Nigeria.





9


In this community, people do not really learn how to count, because


A

Piraha



there is no need for them to learn.


10

The most used system was started by these people.


B

Munduruku


11



addition.



C


Yupno


12

The situation in this community demonstrates that people can estimate


quantities even in cultures where exact numbers do not exis
t

D

Waimiri


13


The system here has been in existence for a very long time, but may


not be the best one.


E

English


14

The counting system in this culture is different from that in most other


cultures

F

Indian 2.

4




Part 3


For questions

15
-

20

read the following passage. Do the statements agree with the views of the
writer?
Transfer your answer to the answer sheet.


YES

if the s
tatement agrees with the views of the writer.


NO

if the statement contradicts what the writer thinks.



NOT GIVEN

if it is impossible to know what the writer's point of view is.


15

The route between Papa Westray a
nd Westray is officially the shortest scheduled domestic




flight in the world.

16

There is more than a mile between Papa Westray and Westray.

17

Loganair does not charge to fly Westray Junior High pupils to school.

18

Pupils from Papa Westray

and from Westray go to Orkney to study for their Highers.

19

The airline claims that the flight is useful for tourists as well as residents.

20

Music, art, craft, physical education and home economics are rarely taught on the islands.


Some children
moan about having to get a bus to school. Six teenagers on a remote Scottish island,
however, have the rather more exciting prospect of going to school by plane on what is believed to
be the world's shortest domestic flight.


The journey from Papa West
ray to Westray in the Orkney Islands takes 96 seconds, covering a
distance of just over a mile. With a tail wind, it can take as little as 47 seconds. Normally the
teenagers go by ferry but when the vessel was taken out of service for refurbishment, Logana
ir, an
airline company, stepped in and offered to fly them to Westray Junior High.


Six students, all aged 13
-
14. will be flown to and from school until the end of the year when the
ferry, the Golden Mariana, is scheduled to return, Loganair said.



Papa Westray has a population of 70 and no secondary school. Westray, home to more than 600
residents, has about 70 pupils enrolled at the junior high and nine full
-
time teachers. The school
provides education to Standard Grade level. The six teenagers f
rom Papa Westray take the flight
every Tuesday morning, stay with host families for two nights and then catch a return flight on
Thursday after school. Pupils from either island choosing to study for their Highers* must travel to
Kirkwall, the capital of O
rkney.


Loganair, which operates the eight
-
seater service in an Islander plane, has changed its schedule
to ensure that the children get to school on time. The company said that the flight was the shortest in
the world and with favourable tail winds c
ould be over in less than a minute. The distance is shorter
than the length of the main runway at Edinburgh Airport.


Jonathan Hinkles, the commercial director of the airline, said: 'While it is a popular tourist route
for many visitors to Scotland, it

is also a vital lifeline for those residents who live, work or do
business in the Orkneys and it will make all the difference to ensuring that those children who live
on Papa Westray can continue their schooling throughout the winter months.'


Willie

McEwen, acting head teacher at Westray Junior High, said: 'We're delighted that Loganair
has come forward with this solution. Our children will enjoy the flying especially as, at this time of
the year, it can be quite rough on the boat. This kind of flexi
bility is an essential part of island life
and the youngsters take it all in their stride.'


The Islander air service, which carries around 20,000 passengers each year, is critical for local
residents during the winter months. It delivers food, mail
and newspapers, and provides a lifeline
between the islands and Kirkwall on mainland Orkney.


In addition. Loganair regularly carries visiting teachers out to the islands to lead lessons in
subjects including music, art, craft, physical education a
nd home economics.


The Guinness World Records said that it did not recognise the world's shortest scheduled
domestic flight. "The category is currently under research," a spokesman said.

Glossary:

Highers:
national school
-
leaving exams in Scotland

3.

5




USE OF ENGLISH

Task 1

For questions
1
-

8

read the text and decide which answer
(A, B, C or D)

best completes eac
h
collocation or fixed phase.


The quality of life these days is something most of us take for
(1)

........It takes some radically
different experience to
(2).
.........this fact home to people. I
n my
(3)
.
........., it was spending three
officially a guest, it was made clear to me from the start that there was to be no room for
passengers, and tha
t I'd have to
(4)
.
.........my weight.

For the first few nights, none us was able to sleep for more than a couple of hours at a
(5)
.
.........before being rudely awoken by an aggressive command. Then we'd do physically
exhausting work in total darkness. Eve
ry few minutes we'd be completely soaked to the
(6)
.
.........by a large wave we couldn't see coming. I shared sleeping

(7
).
.........with six other women,
with barely enough room to stretch my legs. Soon I found myself

(8)
.
.........for my comfortable
shee
ts back home, a hot chocolate and a warm bath.


1

A

given

B

accepted

C

granted

D

read

2

A

bring

B

push

C

sweep

D

carry

3

A

example

B

instance

C

case

D
experience

4

A
offer

B

move

C

use

D

pull

5

A

piece

B
time

C

period

D

moment

6

A

flesh

B

s
kin

C

bones

D

toes

7


A

quarters

B

premises

C dormitories

D

digs

8

A

desiring

B

yearning

C

dreaming

D

craving


Task 2

For questions

9
-

18


read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.





Volcanoes:
Dangers and Benefits

There are fifteen capital cities in the world in a position to be wiped out or seriously damaged by
volcanic eruptions. So why th
en
(9).
.........people continue to live in
(10)
.
.........dangerous areas?

Many of these people are poor and have
(11)
..........choice, while others disregard the risk, which is,
after all, rather
(12)..
........than the risks involved in smoking or driving

a car. What attracts people
to volcanic areas
(13)
.
.........fertile land. The soils from volcanic ashes are light, easily worked, drain
well and are full
(14)
.
.........plant nutrients. A light fall of ash,
(15)
.
.........it may destroy one year's
crop, oft
en pays the farmer back in future years through the fertility it adds to the soil. Coffee in
Colombia, vines in Italy and rice in Japan are
(16).
... a few of the crops that flourish on volcanic
soils. In Italy, Japan, New Zealand, the United States
and Iceland the subterranean heat from
volcanoes is used in geothermal power stations to generate electricity. In many places, the way in
which the flows of lava concentrate minerals
(
17).
.........them attractive to mining companies. There
is growing ev
idence that gold is
(18)
.
.........
the minerals collected by volcanic flows, and the
diamond
-
mining industry in South Africa takes advantage of the huge pressures within past
volcanoes which have produced diamonds.


Task 3

For questions
19
-

23

ch
oose the correct answer
A, B or C

for the underlined words



Transfer your answer to the answer sheet.


19

Janet has
a chip on her shoulde
r because she never got a chance to go to university.


A She is disadvantaged in


B She has an ambition she has not yet fulfilled.


C She carries a negative feeling about it throughout her life.

20


Brian

is pulling Helen's leg
.


A

He is annoying her


6



B He is attacking her

4.

21

Louise needs
a shoulder to cry on.



A She needs to cry publicly C She needs a friend to listen to her troubles.


B She needs something to cry about

22


Rita is trying
to twist Sally's arm
because she wants to borrow Sally's car.



A Rita is trying to persuade Sally even though Sally doesn't want to do it.


B Rita is trying to blackmail Sally to do it.


C Rita is trying to pay Sally to lend her car.

23


Lorna
gave Mark the cold shoulder
w
hen he asked her to go with him to the school party.


A She put her head on Mark's shoulder in a romantic way.


B She rubbed her shoulder against Mark's as a way of saying 'no'.


C She behaved in a rather dis
tant way and said 'no'.


Task 4

For questions

24
-

35


choose the best word or phrase to fill each of the spaces

in the passage below. There are more words tha
n you will need.


Transfer your answer to the answer sheet.


Cabinet Foreign Secretary debates Speaker Leader of the Opposition


Budget Shadow Cabinet Opposition

Chancellor of the Exchequer
ministers backbenchers front bench Prime Minister Home secretary





The House of Commons

This is the House of Commons, where Members of Parliament take their seats on the green leather
bench according to their party and position. One of them is chosen to be the

24
, who acts as a
kind of chairperson of the

25

which take place in the House. In front of and on the right of this
person sit the MPs of the biggest party, which forms the government, and facing them sit the MPs of
the parties who oppose them, the

26
. The leaders of these two groups sit a
t the front on each
side. MPs without special positions in their parties sit behind their leaders at the back. The leader of
the government, the

27
, sits next to his or her

28
. The most important of these form the

29.


The minister respons
ible for relations with other countries is called the

30
. The one responsible
for law and security is called the

31
. The one who deals with financial matters and prepares the
annual

32
speech on the economic state of the country is calle
d the

33
. Opposite this group
sits the

34


(the main person in the largest party opposing the government) and the

35
,
each
member of which specializes in a particular area of government.



Task 5

The following places in London are a
ssociated with certain important institutions
and are often used in the media and in general conversation to refer to those institutions. For
questions
36
-

40


choose one word or word combination and put it in its
correct place in
the sentences below. There are more words than you will need.
Transfer your answer to the



Fleet Street the City 10 Downing Street the West End the O
ld Bailey

Westminster Buckingham Palace Whitehall



-


His criminal career started with theft and pick
-
pocketing and ended
up

at _
36

__on a murder


charge.


-

Although he's only just en
tered Parliament, he's already aiming at_
37
_____.



-

He's an important man in__
38
___. He's director of a big bank or insurance firm or something.


-

She's a good actress but she won't really feel she's succeeded until she has a

leading part


in__
39

____.


-

There are rumours in__
40

____about the possible launching
of a new newspaper next year.

7






5.








WRITING



You wi
ll have to comment on the quotation:




"The important thing is not what you know, but what you can do with what you know"



Write 150
-

180 words in the lines provided below.


____________________________________________________________
____________________
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____
________________________________________________________________________________
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____________________________
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____________________________________
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____________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____
________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________
____________
____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
____________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________
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____________________________________________________________
____________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____




8









KEYS


READING



task 1

1
-

I, 2
-

C, 3
-

G, 4
-

B, 5
-

D, 6
-

A, 7
-

E, 8
-

H;


task 2

9
-

A, 10
-
F, 11
-
D, 12
-
B, 13
-
E, 14
-
C;


task 3

15


NO; 16
-

YES; 17


NOT GIVEN; 18


YES; 19


YES; 20


NO


USE OF ENGLIS
H



task 1

1


C: 2


A; 3


C; 4


D; 5


B; 6


B; 7
-

A; 8


B/D


task 2

9


do; 10


such/these; 11
-
no/little; 12
-

less/smaller; 13
-
is; 14
-
of; 15
-

although/though;


16
-

just/but; 17
-

makes; 18
-

among;


task3


19


C; 20


C; 21


C; 22
-

A; 23
-

C


task 4

24
-

speaker


25
-

debates


26
-

Opposition


27
-

Prime Minister


28
-

ministers


29
-




30
-

Foreign Secretary


31
-

Home Secretary


32
-

Budget


33
-

Chancellor of Excheque


34
-

Leader of the Opposition


35
-



task 5

36
-

the Old
Bailey


37
-

10, Downing Street


38
-

the City


39
-

the West End


40
-

Fleet Street


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