2. The Phonetic System of the Language: Components
The Ph sys of Eng is a systemic combination of all the 4 components of the sound matter, which constitute the material forms of all the morphemes, words, phrases and sentences and serve a speaker of the lang to express his thoughts, feelings, emotions.
The first component of the Ph structure of English is the sys of its segmental phonemes existing in the material form of their allophones constituted by the spectral, fundamental frequency, force and temporal components of the sound matter of lang in various combinations.
The systemic character of the phonemic component is reflected in various classifications of its phonemes in which the letters are divided first into 2 fundamental sound types – vowels and consonants – with further subdivision of each sound type according to the principles of vowel and cons classifications.
The phonemic component of the Ph structure of the E lang manifests itself not only in the sys of its phonemes as discreet (разрозненный) isolated units, but also in combinations of their allophones occurring in words and at the junction of words.
The combinations of allophones are also systemic in character, the allophones of the phoneme occur only in definite positions, e.g. the E sounds [u, ] never occur at the beginning of a word, whereas the sounds [эе, h] never occur at the end of E word. There is not a single Russian word, which begins with the vowel [ы].
A typical combination of cons sounds that may occur at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word is called a cons cluster, the combination of vowels is sometimes referred to as a vowel chain. Clusters and chains also occur in definite positions. Thus, the E clusters – [tl,dl] never occur at the beginning of words, whereas the similar Rus clusters [Тл,дл] never occur at the end of words, e.g. saddle, длань.
The occurrence of the allophones of a phoneme in different positions in a word is called the distribution. Since morphemes, words, phrases and sentences consist of combinations of speech sounds which articulations merge with and interpenetrate (взаимопроникают) each other. It is also systemic in character because lang-s have regular rules of effecting articulatery vowel cons transitions, CV transitions, CC transitions, VV tran.
E.g. the character of the E short stressed vowels in an instance of effecting a VC trans, which is characteristic of E and isn’t used in Russian because Rus vowels are free [pen-i], [пе-ни].The aspiration of E plosives [p,t,k] immediately before a stressed vow and the un-aspirated pronunciation of the Rus counterparts in the same position as well as the palatalization of cons before front high vowels in Rus and the non-palatalized articulation of E cons in the same position are instances of 2 different ways of effecting CV transition, e.g. [phic], [пик].
CC tran may serve the loss of plosion by an E plosive immediately before another plosive and the retension (сохранение) of plosion by its Rus counterpart, e.g. [kt], [акт].
2 different ways of effecting a VV tran maybe illustrated by the presence and absence of the glotal stop(твердый приступ) between vowels, e.g. the apple. Thus, the phonemic component of the Ph sys of E has 3 aspects:
1) The sys of its phonemes as discreet isolated units which may occur in speech as isolated sounds constituting mono-phonemic words and sometimes even sentences;
2) the distribution of the allophones of the phonemes
3) the methods of joining speech sounds together or the methods of effecting VC, CV, CC, VV transitions.
The second component of the Ph system of English
The second component is the syllabic structure of words. The syllabic structure of words has 2 aspects: syllable formation and syllable division (деление) Lang-s may differ from one another both in syllable formation and syl division. Differences in syl formation involve differences in the compacity (соединение) of speech sounds to form syl in different positions. E.g. the cons [m] is syll in the E word rythm, whereas the similar Rus sound [м] is nonsyllabic in the same position in the Rus equivalent of the same word ритм.
Differences in syllabic division involve differences in the position of the point of syllable division or the syllabic boundary and in the types of the resulting syllables mainly open and closed, e.g. [mani] in which the 1 syllable is closed and [мани] in which the 1 syll is pen.
In E differences in syl division may perform a distinctive function.
The third and the forth components of the Ph system of English is the acsentual structure of its words as items of vocabulary.
The accentual structure of words has 3 aspects:
1.the physical nature of word accent
2.the position of the accent in dissyllabic and polysyllabic words.
3.the degrees of word accent.
The physical nature of word accent involves the use components of the sound matter or a combination of them to make a syllable in a word more prominent than the other syllables in it and pronounce a monosyllabic word with the same acoustic characteristics which would make it most prominent if it were the accented syllable of a dissyllabic or polysyllabic word, e.g. [po:t], [impo:t].
The position of the acsent of different degrees in disyllabic and polysyllabic words is an extremely important aspect. Especially in one with the so called free word accent, a lang in which the accent may fall on any syllable in different words. as is the case in E and Russian, e.g. ‘dictionary, ho’tel, яблоко, звезда. In such lang-s word accent performs not only the constitutive and recognitive functions, but also the word distinctive and form distinctive function, e.g. ‘import, im’port, ‘руки, ру’ки.
The 4th component is the intonational structure of sentences in it, intonation being understood in the broad sense.