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Phonetics and Phonology Mukhametshina Albina,972(1E) Phonetics (from the Greek word phone = sound/voice) is a fundamental branch of Linguistics and itself has three different aspects: Articulatory Phonetics - describes how vowels and consonants are produced or “articulated” in various parts of the mouth and throat;Acoustic Phonetics - a study of how speech sounds are transmitted: when sound travels through the air from the speaker's mouth to the hearer's ear it does so in the form of vibrations in the air;Auditory Phonetics - a study of how speech sounds are perceived: looks at the way in which the hearer’s brain decodes the sound waves back into the vowels and consonants originally intended by the speaker. A phone is… The actual sound produced, such as a simple vowel or consonant sound Phonology Phonology is closely connected with phonetics and deals with the way speech sounds behave in particular languages or in languages generally. This focuses on the way languages use differences between sounds in order to convey differences of meaning between words. All theories of phonology hold that spoken language can be broken down into a string of sound units (phonemes). A phoneme is the smallest ‘distinctive unit sound’ of a language. It distinguishes one word from another in a given language. This means changing a phoneme in a word, produces another word, that has a different meaning. In the pair of words (minimal pairs) 'cat' and 'bat', the distinguishing sounds /c/ and /b/ are both phonemes. The phoneme is an abstract term (a speech sound as it exists in the mind of the speaker) and it is specific to a particular language. What are the allophones? A phoneme may have several allophones, related sounds that are distinct but do not change the meaning of a word when they are interchanged. The sounds corresponding to the letter "t" in the English words 'tea' and 'trip' are not in fact quite the same. The position of the tongue is slightly different, which causes a difference in sound detectable by an instrument such as a speech spectrograph. Thus the [t] in 'tea' and the [t] in 'trip' are allophones of the phoneme /t/. Phonology is the link between Phonetics and the rest of Linguistics. Only by studying both the phonetics and the phonology of English is it possible to acquire a full understanding of the use of sounds in English speech. Segmental and suprasegmental phonetics Phonetics is itself divided into two major components: segmental phonetics, which is concerned with individual sounds (i.e. "segments" of speech) and suprasegmental phonetics whose domain is the larger units of connected speech: syllables, words, phrases and texts. Methods of investigation in phonetics and phonology Subjective (a direct observation of organs of speech) Objective (using special laboratory equipment) 1 Observing movements of organs of speech2 Analyzing one’s own kinesthetic sensations during articulation3 Comparing results in auditory impression Palatography Photography x-ray cinematography x-ray photography Applications Application of phonetics include: forensic phonetics: the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes. Speech Recognition: the analysis and transcription of recorded speech by a computer system.