phonetics


the pitch component
a pitch change
a pitch level
the role of the pitch level
the tone
2 broad classes of tones
criteria 4 the classification of tones and their number
their functions
tone and tune
the nuclear tone
the onset, the prehead, the nucleus, the tail
1. the pitch component (or speech melody) - variation in the height of the voice during speech
2. a pitch change - direction of the pitch movement
3. a pitch level - a certain height within the speaker's voice-range
4. plays an import. role in marking the degree of semantic prominence attached by the speaker to a word or phrase in an utterance. And it is also significant 4 conveying various shades of modal-attitudional meanings and emotional colouring.
5.the tone - the basic element of engl. intonation, which is a pitch change combined with increased force of articulation and increased duration.
6. Static - produced by keeping the vocal cords at a constant tension thus producing a tone of unvarying pitch.
Kinetic - produced by varying the tension of the vocal cords thus producing a tone of varying pitch.
7. varieties of static tones: low, mid, high
the number of static tones corresponds to the number of perceptible pitch gradation(levels)
Criteria of classification of kinetic tones:
direction of the pitch change
width of the pitch change (interval)
relative position of the pitch change within the speaker's voice range
The number of kinetic tones corresponds to the number of directional types of pitch change.
The total number of tones is determined by the number of important words.
8.Static tones give prominence to words(higher varieties are associated with greater prominence)
kinetic tones
indicate the communicative type of an utterance
express the speaker's attitude towards the subject-matter, the listener and the situation
single out the centre of new information (the point of greater semantic weight as viewed by the speaker)
9.Tone - p.5 Tune - the pitch pattern of the whole intonation group.
10.the nuclear tone -the kinetic tone carried by the most important word.
11. the onset - first full stress
the prehead - unstressed or partially stressed syllables which precede the first full stress
the head - the portion of the tune extending from the first stressed syllable up to the nuclear syllable, but not including it.
the tail - unstressed or partially stressed syllables following the nucleus
definition of utterance stress
function
parameters 4 creating the effect of stress
word stress and utterance stress
the most efficient parameter
factors that determine the location, type, degree of utterance stress
1. utterance stress - the special prominence given to one or more words in an utterance
2. to indicate the relative importance or special prominence of various elements
3.the effect of prominence is based on:
an increase of the force of articulation
length
pitch level
quality of a vowel
4.w.s. and u.s. shouldn't be confused

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