333333333 Articulatory phonetics (consonants)


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Articulatory phonetics (consonants) General organization of soundsFour general classes of sounds in American English – Vowels, diphthongs, semivowels, and consonants – Each can be further divided according to articulators (manner, place) In terms of articulators, consonants can be described by – Place of articulation: Defines the place of contact between an active articulator (i.e. tongue) and a passive articulator (i.e. palate) – Manner of articulation: Concerned with airflow, the path it takes and the degree to which it is impeded – Voicing: Determined by the behavior of the vocal folds (vibrating vs. open) Place of articulationBilabial: constriction at the lips: [b], [m] – Labiodental: (губно-зубной) Lower lips against upper teeth: [f], [v] Interdentally:(межзубной) constriction between the teeth: [th] thing, [dh] that Alveolar: (альвеолярный) constriction is at the alveolar ridge: [t], [n], [z] Palatal-alveolar:(смег. Альвеолярной) constriction slightly behind alveolar ridge: [sh] sherry, [zh] measure Place of articulationPalatal: (небный) constriction in the hard palate: [jh] joke Velar: (велярный) constriction closer to the soft palate: [k], [ng] sing Labiovelar: constriction both at lips and velum: [w] Glottal:(голосовая шель) when closure occurs as far back as the glottis: glottal stop [], as in the negative utterance uh-uh Uvular:(язычковый) constriction in the uvula; none in English, French /r/ in rouge Places of articulation1. Exo-labial -2. Endo-labial 3. Dental -зубной4. Alveolar-альеолярный 5. Post-alveolar 6. Pre-palatal 7. Palatal –небный 8. Velar- задненебный 9. Uvular язычковый 10. Pharyngeal –фарингальный 11. Glottal –голосовая 12. Epiglottal-надгортань 13. Radical-корень 14. Postero-dorsal 15. Antero-dorsal 16. Laminal -ламинарный17. Apical –верхний 18. Sub-apical –под верхним Manner of articulationStops: produced by complete stoppage of the airstream: [p] Fricatives: tongue comes very close to a full closure: [f], [sh] sherry Affricatives: combination b/w stops and fricatives: cherry Nasals: closed oral passage (as in stops), open nasal cavity: [n], [ng] sing Approximants: halfway between consonants and vowels • Liquids: [l], [r] • Glides: [y], [w] VoicingWhen the vocal folds vibrate, it is voiced; otherwise it is voiceless – Examples of voiceless/voiced: Sue vs. zoo, pat vs. bat Articulatory phonetics (vowels)Vowels can be described in a similar way – Manner of articulation, just considered to be “vowel” – Place of articulation is generally described with three major parameters: frontness, height, and roundness Frontness (or backness) – Provides a general indication of the greatest place of constriction, and correlates with F2 – Three positions in English • Front: [iy] beat, [ih] bit, [eh] bet, [ae] bat • Central: “schwa” *ax+ about • Back: [uw] boot, [ao] bought, [ah] but, [aa] father Height – Refers to how far lower jaw is from upper jaw when making the vowel • High vowels have lower and upper jaw close: [iy], [uw] • Low vowels have a more open oral cavity: [ae], [aa] – Correlates with F1 (high vowel: low F1; low vowel: high F1) Roundness – Refers to whether the lips have been rounded as opposed to spread – In English, front vowels are unrounded whereas back vowels are rounded: bit vs. boot Acoustic phoneticsAcoustic phonetics is concerned with – Time domain waveform of the speech signal, and – Its time-varying spectral characteristics Acoustic phoneticsVisualizations of speech waveforms – Time-domain waveforms are rarely studied directly • This is because phase differences can significantly affect its shape but are rarely relevant for speech perception Acoustic phoneticsInstead, frequency-domain signals are commonly used – The spectrum (log-magnitude) of a voiced phone shows two types of information • A comb-like structure, which represent the harmonics of F0 (the source), • A broader envelope, which represents the resonances (formants) of the vocal tract filter Various techniques exist to separate the two sources of information • Linear prediction, homomorphic (cepstral) analysis … The spectrogram– Can be thought of as a moving spectrum over time – Typically represented as a 3D graphic where • Horizontal dimension represents time, • Vertical dimension represents frequency, and • Color represents magnitude (typically in log scale) Two general types of spectrograms– Wideband • Computed over a short window of time (e.g., 5 ms) • High temporal resolution, poor frequency resolution • Vertical striations represent individual pitch periods (for voiced phones) – Narrowband• Computed over a relatively large window of time (e.g., 25 ms) • High frequency resolution, poor temporal resolution Vowels – The largest phoneme group and most interesting one • Carry little information in written speech, but most ASR systems rely heavily on them for performance – Vowels are voiced (except when whispered) and have the greatest intensity and duration in the range of 50 to 400ms – Vowels are distinguished mainly by their first three formants • However, there is a significant individual variability, so other cues can be employed for discrimination (upper formants, bandwidths) Speech perception– Vowel perception is relatively simple: formant frequencies are the main factors in vowel identification – However, formant frequencies scale with vocal tract length There is evidence that listeners “normalize” formant location by making formant spacing essential features of vowel identification – Vowel nasalization is cued primarily by Increase in the bandwidth of F1, and The introduction of zerosVowels Speech perception- More complex, and depends on a number of factors Formant transition into the following vowel Formant location Voice onset time VoicingIntroduction to Speech Processing | Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna | [email protected] 35 - Direction of formant transition See examples in the next few slidesConsonants Speech perception– Rate of formant transition • It is possible to transform the perception of a plosive into a semi-vowel by decreasing the formant transition rate • Example: contrast between [b] and [w] – On the word ‘be’, the transition between *b+ and *i] is 10 ms – As the transition increases beyond 30 ms, ‘be’ is transformed into ‘we’ – Formant locus • Vocal tract configuration in front of the closure (for stops)Consonants Voice onset time (VOT) • Length of time between release of a closure and the start of voicing • Critical for the perception of stop consonants • Example: contrast between [t] and [d] On the word ‘do’, segment the sound *d+ and increase the delay wrt [o] When VOT exceeds about 25 ms, the word is perceived as ‘toSpeech perceptionConsonants Задания Дайте описания следующих согласных [s], [m], [v], [h] Приведите примеры слова содержащего этот звук глухой, губно-губной, неаспирированный, взрывной, Звонкий, альвеолярный, взрывной, Боковой аппроксимант,Велярный носовой,Звонкий, зубной, фрикаивный,Глухой, аспирированный , альвеолярный , взрывной. 3 Назовите общие черты объдиняюшие следующие согласные [h], [b], [m][g], [p], [t], [d], [k],[b][t], [s], [p], [k],[f], [v], [z], [n], [g], [d], [b], [l], [r], [w][t], [d], [s], [l], [n] Задания [s]- альвеолярный, фрикативный, сильный глухой , [m]-губно-губной фрикативный слабый звонкий , [v]- губно-зубной фрикативный , [h]-глотальный Приведите примеры слова содержащего этот звук глухой, губно-губной, неаспирированный, взрывной, - stopЗвонкий, альвеолярный, взрывной, - dayБоковой аппроксимант,-lakeВелярный носовой,-wrongЗвонкий, зубной, фрикаивный, this Глухой, аспирированный , альвеолярный , взрывной.tea 3 Назовите общие черты объдиняюшие следующие согласные [h], [b], [m][g], [p], [t], [d], [k],[b][t], [s], [p], [k],[f], [v], [z], [n], [g], [d], [b], [l], [r], [w][t], [d], [s], [l], [n] все губно-губные, взрывные, альвеолярные, велярные.

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