Phonetic functional styles: A person speaks differently on different occasions. The circumstances of reality cause certain modification in speech. These circumstances or factors are called extra linguistic factors. They are:
- the aim of the utterance (purpose);
- the speaker’s attitude;
- the form of the communication (monologue, dialogue)
- the use of a form of speech (discussion, conversation, lecture)
- the degree of formality (friendly, official)
- the social status of the speakers and their relation to each other;
- the degree of spontaneity (prepared, unprepared, reading aloud);
- speaker’s individuality;
- social prominence;
- range of intelligibility;
- sex and age of the speaker.
Situational pronunciation varieties are called phonetic styles. Different ways of pronunciation caused by extra linguistic factors and characterized by definite pronunciation features are called phonetic styles or styles of pronunciation.
There is no general accepted classification of phonetic styles.
Scherba distinguished 2 styles:
- the full;
- the colloquial.
Bulanin, Avanesov distinguished 3 styles:
- the full or elevated;
- the neutral (lectures, broadcasting);
- the colloquial.
Daniel Johns distinguished 5 styles:
- the rapid, familiar;
- the slower colloquial;
- the natural;
- the style of the stage;
- the style in singing.
Gaiduchik distinguished 5 styles:
- the solemn;
- the scientific-business;
- the official-business;
- the familiar
- Formal – official (public speech, official talks)
neutral (lecture, business talks)
- Informal – ordinary (conversation between colleges)
Familiar (everyday conversation between friends or relatives).
We shall analyze the styles according to Socolova’s classification.
An intonation style can be defined as a system of integrated intonation means, which is used in a certain social sphere and serves a definite aim in communication.
1. Informational (formal);
2. Scientific (academic);
5. Familiar (conversational).
The situational context and the speaker’s purpose determine the choice of intonation style. Intonation style distinction is based on the assumption that there are three types of information present in communication:
- intellectual information
- emotional and altitudinal (modal) information
- volitional and desiderative information
Intonation plays a central role in stylistic differentiation of oral texts.
There are three types of intonation patterns used in oral communication:
- intonation patterns used for intellectual purposes
- intonation patterns used for emotional and attitudinal purposes
- intonation patterns used for volitional desiderative purposes.