Graphic expressive means serve to convey in written form those emotions, which in oral speech are expressed by intonation, stress, pausation etc.
They include not only punctuation but arrangement of lines in prose and in poetry, paragraphing, in writing of words. Graphic means are very important in poetry, where the arrangement of lines in a verse, their length and a graphic form are very important and define the manner of performing of the verse.
The typographic devices transferring oral speech to the written form is subdivided into three groups:
2. spelling deviations
3. special typographic technique to show emotions.
1) the punctuation which is used in some syntactical stylistic devices: in rhetorical questions, suspense (пауза).
2) graphone, which is a spelling deviation. This device is used to show the dialect or illetaracy of the speaker. It is very popular among modern writers.
The most typical of them are:
a) the use of apostrophe instead a sound or syllable which are not pronounced.
At the beginning of a word:
`way – away
`bout – about
In the middle:
Reg`lar – regular
M`lord – milord
At the end.An` - and
Ol` - old
O` - of.
Also a double diaeresis is a very frequent.
`n` - and
`for` - before
Sometimes the apostrophe is not used. It may be demonstrated by blending of two words.
Nutch – not much
Dunno – don`t know
Lemme – let me.
2. Substitution of correct letters with other letters imitates phonetic deviation
Dawterr – daughter
Wery – very
Gals – girls
Punctuation aimes at helping a reader to perform (to imagine) a passage mentally. For this, the pauses, stresses, intonation, are used.
f.ex. Dear Ann!
This call (appeal) is used in a separate paragraph, with exclamatory mark. The time fillers like well, hm, so are the elements of punctuation, like dots.
Among special typographic techniques, we may distinguish
1. Italics – a kind of printing type in which letters slope to the right.
2. printing in capital letters.
In poetry, capital letters stand at the beginning of each line. The function of this device is to show every-day routine.