Text A The History of Russian Customs
The current Russian word for Customs, tamo:hnya, originated in the times of the Mongol-Tatar yoke. The word tamga, in Tatar, meant "a Customs tax, the official who collected it, and the stamped seal or statement verifying that it had
Each market had its tttmo:hnya, and the right to collect duties could be purchased from the State. This right was often acquired by powerful merchants.
The Russian Customs Service, however, predates even the Mongol Yoke. Some three centuries before, in Kievan Rus, taxes were collected for the transportation of goods through the frontiers of its individual princedoms.
Thus, Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years. The first Russian Customs statute was handed down in 1667. It was strict towards foreigners, who were allowed to trade only in frontier towns on pain of confiscation. Every tsar, from Peter the Great to Nicolas II, approved laws limiting the import of foreign goods and defending Russian producers.
During the Soviet period foreign trade was strictly monopolized in the USSR and Customs neither had any significant function in the economy nor played any important role.
Much was done to creai;- customs legisla' <,.,; in Russia in the period 1991- 94. Two important laws were adopted: «The Customs Code of the Russian Federation» and <<0n Customs Tariffs. All provisions and regulations in thesp documents are of the world standard.
Russia has the world's longest border to police, much of it newly created and has a modem, multi-functioning Customs Service, it carries out the jarre functions as the Customs of other developed countries: fiscal functions, regulation of foreign trade by means of tariff and non-tariff methods, law enforcement, collection and keeping of customs statistics concerning foreign trade, etc.
10.2.1.Give the English equivalents of the following collocations:
fiscal functioncustoms legislationnon-tariff method
law enforcementtariff methodforeign trade regulation
10.2.2.Find in the text the words which follow the verbs below:to collectto keep outto approveto limit
to defendto bringto createto carry out
10.2.3.Find the words/phrases in the text which have (he following meanings:
1to give, to pass5. function of public revenue
2to show the truth of6. benefit, profit
3borders7. to adopt (a law)
4at the risk of8. renewal of friendly relations
10.2.4.What words in the text mean:
1to buy, to get
2to keep safe, to guard
3rule made by authority