MORPHOLOGICAL STYLISTICS


MORPHOLOGICAL STYLISTICS

THE THEORY OF GRAMMATICAL GRADATION.
MARKED, SEMI-MARKED AND UNMARKED STRUCTURES.
ONE OF– THE LEAST INVESTIGATED AREAS OF STYLISTIC RESEARCH IS THE STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
THE MAJOR PRINCIPAL OF THE STYLISTIC EFFECT IS THE OPPOSITION BETWEEN THE NORM AND DEVIATION FROM THE NORM ON ANY LEVEL OF THE LANGUAGE.
BUT THERE ARE DEVIATIONS THAT CREATE ABSURDITY OR LINGUISTIC NONSENSE. E.G. YOU CANNOT NORMALLY USE THE ARTICLE WITH AN ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE.
NOAM CHOMSKY FORMULATED THE RULE IN GRAMMAR THAT HE CALLED G RAMMATICAL GRADATION.
HE CONSTRUCTED A SCALE WITH TWO POLES- GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT STRUCTURES AT ONE EXTREME POINT OF THIS SCALE AND GRAMMATICALLY INCORRECT STRUCTURES AT THE OTHER. THE FIRST HE CALLED GRAMMATICALLY MARKED STRUCTURES, THE SECOND- UNMARKED STRUCTURES.
E.G.РЕШИЛ ОН МЕНЯ ОБМАНУТЬ.
DECIDED HE ME TO DECEIVE. THIS SENTENCE BELONGS TO UNMARKED STRUCTURES.
BETWEEN THESE TWO POLES THERE IS SPACE FOR THE SO-CALLED SEMI-MARKED STRUCTURES.
THESE ARE STRUCTURES MARKED BY THE DEVIATION FROM LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL VALENCY. THIS MEANS THAT WORDS AND GRAMMAR FORMS CARRY AN UNUSUAL GRAMMATICAL OR REFERENTIAL MEANING. IN OTHER TERMS THIS IS CALLED TRANSPOSITION.--
GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR AND TYPES OF GRAMMATICAL
TRANSPOSITION
SOME SCHOLARS USE THE TERM GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR FOR THIS KIND OF PHENOMENA.
LEXICAL METAPHOR IS BASED ON THE TRANSFER OF THE NAME OF THE OBJECT ON TO ANOTHER DUE TO SOME COMMON GROUND. THE SAME MECHANISM WORKS IN THE FORMATION OF A GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR.
LINGUISTIC UNITS POSSESS NOT ONLY LEXICAL MEANINGS BUT ALSO GRAMMATICAL ONES THAT ARE CORRELATED WITH EXTRA-LINGUISTIC REALITY.
E.G. SUCH GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES AS PLURALITY AND SINGULARITY REFLECT THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN A MULTITUDE AND ONENESS IN THE REAL WORLD.
A GRAMMATICAL FORM, AS WELL AS A LEXICAL UNIT POSSESSES A DENOTATIVE AND A CONNOTATIVE MEANING.

THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF DENOTATIVE GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS.
TWO OF THESE HAVE SOME KIND OF REFERENCE WITH THE EXTRA-LINGUISTIC REALITY AND ONE HAS ZERO DENOTATION.
.
1.THE FIRST TYPE OF GRAMMATICAL DENOTATION REFLECTS RELATIONS OF OBJECTS IN OUTSIDE REALITY SUCH AS SINGULARITY AND PLURALITY.
2 THE SECOND TYPE IS EXPRESSED BY SUCH CATEGORIES AS MODELITY, VOICE, DEFINITENESS AND INDEFINITENESS.
3.THE THIRD TYPE OF DENOTATIVE MEANING HAS NO REFERENCE TO THE EXTRA-LINGUISTIC REALITY. THIS IS INTRALINGUISTIC DENOTATION, THE FORMATION OF PAST TENSE FORMS OF REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS.
GRAMMATICAL FORM MAY CARRY ADDITIONAL EXPRESSIVE INFORMATION, IT CAN EVOKE ASSOCIATIONS, EMOTIONS AND IMPRESSIONS.
CONNOTATIONS AROUSED BY A GRAMMATICAL FORM ARE ADHERENT SUBJECTIVE COMPONENTS, SUCH AS EXPRESSIVE OR INTENSIFIED MEANING, EMOTIVE OR EVALUATIVE COLOURING.
THE NEW CONNOTATIVE MEANING OF GRAMMATICAL FORMS APPEARS WHEN WE OBSERVE A CERTAIN CLASH BETWEEN FORM AND MEANING OR DEVIATION IN THE NORM OF USE OF SOME FORMS. THE STYLISTIC EFFECT PRODUCED IS CALLED GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR.
TYPES OF GRAMMATICAL TRANSPOSITION
WE DISTINGUISH 3 TYPES OF GRAMMATICAL TRANSPOSITION.
1.THE FIRST DEALS WITH THE T RANSPOSITION OF A GRAMMAR FORM INTO A NEW SYNTACTICAL DISTRIBUTI ON WITH THE EFFECT OF CONTRAST.
THE “HISTORICAL PRESENT” IS A GOOD ILLUSTRATION OF THIS TYPE:
A VERB IN THE PRESENT INDEFINITE IS USED AGAINST THE BACKGROUNG OF THE PAST INDEFINITE NARRATION.
EVERYTHING WENT AS EASY AS DRINKING, JIMMY SAID. THERE WAS A GARAGE JUST ROUND THE CORNER BEHIND BELGRAVE SQUARE WHERE HE USED TO GO EVERY MORNING TO WATCH THEM MESSING ABOUT WITH THE CARS. CRAZY ABOUT CARS THE KID WAS. JIMMY COMES IN ONE DAY WITH HIS MOTOBIKE AND SIDE-CAR AND ASKS FOR SOME PETROL. HE COMES UP AND LOOKS AT IT IN THE WAY HE HAD. (WAUGH).
2 THE SECOND TYPE OF TRANSPOSITION INVOLVES BOTH- LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS
THE USE OF THE PLURAL FORM WITH A NOUN WHOSE LEXICAL DENOTATIVE MEANING IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH PLURALITY( ABSTRACT NOUNS,PROPER NAMES) MAY SERVE AS AN EXAMPLE:
THE LOOK ON HER FACE… WAS FULL OF SECRET RESENTMENTS, AND LONGINGS, AND FEARS. (MITCHELL).
3TRANSPOSITION OF GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS THAT BRINGS TOGETHER INCOMPATIBLE FORMS - E.G. THE USE OF A COMMON NOUN AS A PROPER ONE.
THE EFFECT IS PERSONIFICATION OF INANIMATE OBJECTS OR ANTONOMASIA
LORD AND LADY CIRCUMFERENCE, MR. PARAKEET, PROF. SILENUS, COLONEL MACADDER (WAUGH).
STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
NOUN AND ITS STYLISTIC POTENTIAL.
THE STYLISTIC POWER OF A NOUN IS CLOSELY LINKED TO THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES THIS PART OF SPEECH POSSESSES. THEY ARE THE CATEGORIES OF NUMBER, PERSON AND CASE
THE USE OF A SINGULAR NOUN INSTEAD OF AN APPROPRIATE PLURAL FORM. CREATES A GENERALIZED, ELEVATED EFFECT BORDERING ON SYMBOLIZATION
THE FAINT FRESH FLAME OF THE YOUNG YEAR FLUSHES
FROM LEAF TO FLOWER AND FROM FLOWER TO TRUIT
AND FRUIT AND LEAF ARE AS GOLD AND FIRE.
THE USE OF PLURAL INSTEAD OF SINGULAR MAKES THE DESCRIPTION MORE POWERFUL AND LARGE-SCALE.
THE CLAMOUR OF WATERS, SNOWS, WINDS, RAINS….(HEMINGWAY)
PROPER NAMES EMPLOYED AS PLURAL LEND THE NARRATION A UNIQUE GENERALIZING EFFECT.
IF YOU FORGET TO INVITE SOMEBIDY’S AUNT MILLIE, I WANT TO BE ABLE TO SAY I HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH IT.
THERE WERE NUMEROUS AUNT MILLIES BECAUSE OF , AND IN SPITE OF AUTHUR’S AND EDITH’S TRIPLE CHECKING OF THE LIST.(O’HARA).
THESE EXAMPLES REPRESENT THE SECOND TYPE OF GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR FORMED B THE TRANSPOSITION OF THE LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS.
THE THIRD TYPE OF TRANSPOSITION IS THE EXAMPLE OF PERSONIFICATION.
:
PERSONIFICATION TRANSPOSES A COMMON NOUN INTO THE CLASS OF PROPER NAMES BY ATTRIBUTING TO IT THOUGHTS OR QUALITIES OF A HUMAN BEING.
AS A RESULT THE SYNTACTICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND LEXICAL VALENCY OF THIS NOUN CHANGES:
ENGLAND’S MASTERY OF THE SEAS , TOO, WAS GROWING EVEN GREATER. LAST YEAR HER TRADING RIVALS THE DUTCH HAD PUSHED OUT OF SEVERAL COLONIES…(RUTHERFORD)
ABSTRACT NOUNS TRANSPOSED INTO THE CLASS OF PERSONAL NOUNS
ARE CHARGED WITH VARIOUS EMOTIONAL CONNOTATIONS.
THE CHUBBY LITTLE ECCENTRICITY.(CHILD) TASTE.
THE OLD ODDITY(AN ODD OLD PERSON)
THE EMOTIVE CONNOTATIONS IN SUCH CASES MAY RANGE FROM AFFECTION TO IRONY OR DISTASTE.
THE ARTICLE AND ITS STYLISTIC POTENTIAL
THE ARTICLE MAY BE A VERY EXPRESSIVE ELEMENT OF NARRATION ESPECIALLY WHEN USED WITH PROPER NAMES.
THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE MAY CONVEY EVALUATIVE CONNOTATIONS WHEN USED WITH A PROPER NAME.
I’M A MARLOW BY BIRTH, AND WE ARE A HOT-BLOODED FAMILY.(FOLLETT).
A FORSYTE IS NOT AN UNCOMMON ANIMAL(GALSWORTHY)
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE USED WITH APROPER NAME MAY BECOME A POWERFUL EXPRESSIVE MEANS TO EMPHASIZE THE PERSON’S GOOD OR BAD QUALITIES.
YOU ARE NOT THE ANDREW MANSON I MARRIED.
THIS EXAMPLE IMPLIES THAT THIS ARTICLE EMBODIES ALL THE GOOD QUALITIES THAT ANDREW MANSON USED TO HAVE AND LOST IN THE EYES OF HIS WIFE.
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE MAY CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVICES OF GRADATION
OR HELP CREATE THE RHYTHM OF THE NARRATION :
BUT THEN HE WOULD LOSE SONDRA, HIS CONNECTIONS HERE, AND HIS UNCLE - THIS WORLD! THE LOSS!THE LOSS!THE LOSS.!
NO ARTICLE, OR THE OMISSION OF ARTICLE BEFORE A COMMON NOUN CONVEYS A MAXIMUM LEVEL OF ABSTRACTION, GENERALIZATION.
NOT SOUND, NOT QUIVER AS IF HORSE AND MAN HAD TURNED TO METAL.
THE STYLISTIC POWER OF THE PRONOUN
THE STYLISTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE PRONOUN ALSO DEPEND ON THE DISPARITY BETWEEN THE TRADITIONAL AND CONTEXTUAL MEANINGS.
THIS IS THE GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR OF THE FIRST TYPE BASED ON THE TRANSPOSITION OF THE FORM, WHEN ONE PRONOUN IS TRANSPOSED INTO THE ACTION SPHERE OF ANOTHER PRONOUN.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS: WE, YOU, THEY AND OTHERS CAN BE EMPLOYED IN THE MEANING DIFFERENT FROM THEIR DICTIONARY MEANING.
“THE PLURAL OF MAJESTY” - WE, CHARLES THE SECOND….
“THE PLURAL OD MODESTY”- NOW WE COME TO THE CONCLUSION…
“ THE PLURAL OF HUMILITY” - OH, WE ARE PROUD…
THE PRONOUN YOU AS INTENSIFIER:USED IN AN EXPRESSIVE ADDRESS OR IMPERATIVE:
JUST YOU GO IN AND WIN.(WAUGH)
GET OUT OF MY HOUSE< YOU FOOL, YOU IDIOT, YOU STUPID OLD BRIGGS.
PRONOUN I MAY TESTIFY TO THE SPEAKER’S COMPLACENCY AND EGOMANIA., WHILE YOU OR ONE USED IN REFERENCE TO ONESELF CHARACTERISE THE SPEAKER AS A RESERVED, SELF-CONTROLLED PERSON.
YOU CAN ALWAYS BUILD ANOTHER IMAGE FOR YOURSELF TO FALL IN LOVE WITH.
NO, YOU CAN’T . THAT’S THE TROUBLE, YOU LOSE THE CAPACITY FOR BUILDING. YOU RUN SHORT OF THE STUFF THAT CREATES BEAUTIFUL ILLUSIONS.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS MAY BE LOADED WITH EVALUATIVE CONNOTATIONS AND DEVOID OF ANY GRAMMATICAL MEANING OF POSSESSION.

WATCH WHAT YOU ARE ABOUT, MY MAN!
YOUR PRECIOUS CHARLES OR FRANK OR YOUR STUPID ASHLEY!
THE ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVE FORM MAY FULFILL THE SAME FUNCTION.
WELL, YOU TELL THAT HERMAN OF YOURS TO MIND HIS OWN BUSINESS.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS MAY GREATLY ENHANCE THE EXPRESSIVE COLOURING OF THE UTTERANCE.

THAT WONDERFUL GIRL! THAT BEAUTY! THAT WORLD OF WEALTH AND SOCIAL POSITION SHE LIVED IN!
IN THIS EXAMPLE THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS DO NOT POINT AT ANYTHING BUT THE EXCITEMENT OF THE SPEAKER.
PRONOUNS ARE A POWERFUL MEANS TO CONVEY THE ATMOSPHERE OF INFORMAL OR FAMILIAR COMMUNICATION.
IT WAS ROBERT ACKLEY, THIS GUY, THAT ROOMED RIGHT NEXT TO ME. (SALINGER)
PERSONAL PRONOUNS HE AND SHE AS SUSTAINED COMPOSITIONAL METAPHORS.
THROUGH THE FIGURATIVE USE OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS THE AUTHOR MAY ACHIEVE METAPHORICAL IMAGES AND EVEN CREATE SUSTAINED COMPOSITIONAL METAPHORS.

HE ALWAYS THOUGHT OF THE SEA AS “LA MAR” WHICH IS WHAT PEOPLE CALL HER IN SPANISH WHEN THEY LOVE HER. SOMETIMES THOSE WHO LOVE HER SAY BAD THINGS ABOUT HER BUT THEY ARE ALWAYS SAID SA THOUGH SHE WERE A WOMAN (HEMINGWAY)
HE IS A GREAT FISH AND I MUST CONVINCE HIM, HE THOUGHT . I MUST NEVER LET HIM LEARN HIS STRENGTH.(HEMINGWAY)
IN THE SAME BOOK E. HEMINGWAY CALLS A HUGE AND STRONG FISH AS HE.

PRONOUNS POSSESS A STRONG STYLISTIC POTENTIAL THAT IS REALIZED DUE TO THE VIOLATION OF THE NORMAL LINKS WITH THEIR OBJECT OF REFERENCE.
THE ADJECTIVE AND ITS STYLISTIC FUNCTIONS
THE ONLY GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF THE ENGLISH ADJECTIVE TODAY IS THAT OF COMPARISON. COMPARISON IS ONLY THE PROPERTY OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ADJECTIVES, BUT NOT THE RELATIVE ONES.
WHEN ADJECTIVES THAT ARE NOT NORMALLY USED IN A COMPARATIVE DEGREE ARE USED WITH THIS CATEGORY THEY ARE CHARGED WITH A STRONG EXPRESSIVE POWER.
MRS. THOMPSON, OLD MAN FELLOW’S HOUSEKEEPER HAD FOUND HIM DEADER THAN A DOORNAIL…
THIS IS A VIVID EXAMPLE OF A GRAMMATICAL TRANSPOSITION OF THE SECOND TYPE BUILT ON THE INCONGRUITY OF THE LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS.
THE UNEXPECTED SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE DEGREE FORMS LEND THE SENTENCE A CERTAIN RHYTHM AND MAKE IT EVEN MORE EXPRESSIVE:
…FIFTEEN MILLIONS OF WORKERS, UNDERSTOOD TO BE THE STRANGEST, THE CUNNINGEST, THE WILLINGEST OUR EARTH EVER HAD.
THE COMMERCIAL FUNCTIONAL STYLE MAKES A WIDE USE OF THE VIOLATION OF GRAMMATICAL NORMS TO CAPTIVATE THE READER’S ATTENTION:
THE ORANGEMOSTEST DRINK IN THE WORLD.
THE USE OF COMPARATIVE OR SUPERLATIVE FORMS WITH OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH MAY ALSO CONVEY A HUMOROUS COLOURING:
HE WAS THE MOST MARRIED MAN I’VE EVER MET.
ANOTHER STYLISTIC ASPECT OF THE ADJECTIVE COMES TO THE FORE WHEN AN ADJECTIVE GETS SUBSTANTIVIZED AND ACQUIRES THE QUALITIES OF A NOUN SUCH AS “SOLID, FIRM, HARD” , ETC.
ALL EUROPE WAS IN ARMS, AND ENGLAND WOULD JOIN. THE IMPOSSIBLE HAD HAPPENED. (ALDINGTON)
THE STYLISTIC FUNCTION OF THE ADJECTIVE IS ACHIEVED THROUGH THE DEVIANT USE OF THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON THAT RESULTS MOSTLY IN GRAMMATICAL METAPHORS OF THE SECOND TYPE (LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL INCONGRUITY)
THE SAME EFFECT IS ALSO CAUSED BY THE SUBSTANTIVISED USE OF THE ADJECTIVES.
THE VERB AND ITS STYLISTIC PROPERTIES
THE VERB IS ONE OF THE OLDEST PARTS OF SPEECH AND HAS A VERY DEVELOPED GRAMMATICAL PARADIGM. IT POSSESSES MORE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES THAN ANY OTHER PART OF SPEECH . ALL DEVIANT USAGES OF ITS TENSE, VOICE AND ASPECT FORMS HAVE STRONG STYLISTIC CONNOTATIONS AND PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN CREATING A METAPHORICAL MEANING. A VIVID EXAMPLE OF THE GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR OF THE FIRST TYPE (FORM TRANSPOSITION) IS THE USE OF “ HISTORICAL PRESENT” THAT MAKES THE DESCRIPTION VERY PICTORIAL AND VISIBLE.
“HISTORICAL PRESENT”
WHAT ELSE DO I REMEMBER! LET ME SEE.
THERE COMES OUT OF THE CLOUD OUR HOUSE, BUT QUITE FAMILIAR, IN ITS EARLIST REMEMBRANCE. ON THE GROUND FLOOR IS PEGGOTY’S KITCHEN, OPENING INTO A BACK YARD…
THE IMPERATIVE FORM AND THE PRESENT SIMPLE REFERRED TO THE FUTURE RENDER DETERMINATION:
EDWARD, LET THERE BE AN END OF THIS. I GO HOME.(DICKENS)
THE USE OF SHALL WITH THE SECOND OR THE THIRD PERSON WILL DENOTE THE SPEAKER’S EMOTIONS, INTENTION OR DETERMINATION:
IF THERE’S A DISPUTED DECISION, HE SAID GENIALLY, THEY SHALL RACE AGAIN.(WAUGH)
THE USE OF WILL EVOKES SIMILAR CONNOTATIONS:
ADAM.ARE YOU TIGHT AGAIN?
LOOK OUT OF THE WINDOW AND SEE IF YOU CAN SEE A DAIMLER WAITING.
ADAM, WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? I WILL BE TOLD.

CONTINUOUS FORMS MAY EXPRESS:
COVICTION, DETERMINATION, PERSISTENCE:
WELL, SHE’S NEVER COMING HERE AGAIN, I TELL YOU THAT STRAIGHT.(MAUGHM)
IMPATIENCE, IRRITATION:
I DIDN’T MEAN TO HURT YOU.
YOU DID. YOU’RE DOING NOTHING ELSE.(SHAW)
SURPRISE, INDIGNATION, DISAPPROVAL:
WOMEN KILL ME. THEY ARE ALWAYS LEAVING THEIR GODDAM BAGS OUT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE AISLE. (SALINGER)
PRESENT CONTINUOUS MAY BE USED INSTEAD OF THE PRESENT INDEFINITE FORM TO CHARACTERIZE THE CURRENT EMOTIONAL STATE OR BEHAVIOUR:
HOW IS CAROL? BLOOMING, CHARLEY SAID. SHE IS BEING SO BRAVE.(SHAW_)

VERBS OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL PERCEPTION IN CONTINUOUS FORMS.REVEAL A SEMI-MARKED STRUCTURE THAT IS HIGHLY EMPHATIC DUE TO THE INCOMPATIBLE COMBINATION OF LEXICAL MEANING AND GRAMMATICAL FORM.
I MUST SAY YOU’RE DISAPPOINTING ME, MY DEAR FELLOW.(BERGER)
NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERBS SUCH AS INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE 1 IN PLACE OF THE PERSONAL FORMS COMMUNICATE CERTAIN STYLISTIC CONNOTATIONS TO THE UTTERANCE.
E XPECT LEO TO PROPOSE TO HER!
DEATH! TO DECIDE ABOUT DEATH!
PASSIVE VOICE OF THE VERB WHEN VIEWED FROM A STYLISTIC ANGLE MAY DEMONSTRATE SUCH FUNCTIONS AS EXTREME GENERALISATION AND DEPERSONALISATION BECAUSE AN UTTERANCE IS DEVOID OF THE DOER OF AN ACTION AND THE ACTION ITSELF LOSES DIRECTION:
… HE IS A LONG-TIME CITIZEN AND TO BE TRUSTED…(MICHENER)
EMPHATIC DO IN AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES IS A NOTABLE EMPHATIC DEVICE:
I DON’T WANT TO LOOK AT SITA. I SIP MY COFFEE AS LONG AS POSSIBLE. THEN I DO LOOK AT HER AND SEE THAT ALL THE COLOUR HAS LEFT HER FACE, SHE IS FEARFULLY PALE.(ERDRICH)
THE STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE VERB IS HIGH ENOUGH. THE MAJOR MECHANISM OF CREATING ADDITIONAL CONNOTATIONS IS THE TRANSPOSITION OF VERB FORMS THAT BRINGS ABOUT THE APPEARANCE OF METAPHORS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND TYPES.
AFFIXATION AND EXPRESSIVENESS
EVALUATIVE AND DIMINUTIVE SUFFIXES: WEAKLING, PIGLET, RIVULET, GIRLIE,
LAMBKIN, KITCHENETTE.
WE CAN FIND THEM AS A REMNANT OF THE FORMER MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEM OR AS A RESULT OF BORROWING FROM OTHER LANGUAGES.
THESE SUFFIXES ENABLE THE SPEAKER TO COMMUNICATE HIS POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE EVALUATION OF A PERSON OR THING.
THE SUFFIX -IAN/EAN : THE PRE-TOLSTOYAN NOVEL MEANS “ LIKE SOMEONE OR SOMETHING, ESPECIALLY CONNECTED WITH A PARTICULAR THING , PLACE OR PERSON”.
THE CONNOTATIONS THIS SUFFIX MAY CONVEY ARE POSITIVE AND IT IS FREQUENTLY USED WITH PROPER NAMES, ESPECIALLY FAMOUS IN ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, ETC.
SHAKESPEAREAN, WAGNERIANSOME OF THESE ADJECTIVES MAY POSSESS CONNOTATIONS CONNECTED WITH COMMON ASSOCIATIONS WITH THE WORK AND LIFE OF FAMOUS PEOPLE THAT MAY HAVE EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE COLOURING.
SUGGESTING CHARLES DICKENS OR HIS WRITING AS THE OLD-FASHIONED DIRTINESS OF VICTORIAN ENGLAND, SEE THE EXAMPLE:
MOST DEPUTIES WORK TWO TO AN OFFICE IN A SPACE OF DICKENSIAN GRIMNESS.
OR THE CHEERFULNESS OF VICTORIAN AMUSEMENTS AND CUSTOMS,
E.G. A REAL DICKENSIAN CHRISTMAS
THE SUFFIX -ISH IS NOT MERELY A NEUTRAL MORPHEME MEANING A SMALL DEGREE OF QUALITY, BUT IT SERVES TO CREATE “ DELICATE OR TACTFUL”. ANOTHER MEANING IS “ BELONGING OR HAVING CHARACTERISTICS OF SMB. OR SMTH.”. MOST DICTIONARIES POINT OUT THAT -ISH MAY SHOW DISAPPROVAL AND OFTEN HAS A DEROGATORY MEANING INDICATING THE BAD QUALITIES OF SOMETHING OR THE QUALITIES WHICH ARE NOT SUITABLE TO WHAT IT DESCRIBES.
BLUE-BLUISH,BALDISH, DULLISH, BIGGISH, SELFISH, SNOBBISH, MANNISH ( ABOUT A WOMAN)

THE SUFFIX –ESQUE: ARABESQUE, ROMANESQUE, DANTESQUE, TURNERESQUE.
WHEN USED WITH THE NAMES OF FAMOUS PEOPLE IT MEANS “ IN THE MANNAR OR STYLE OF THIS PARTICULAR PERSON”. DUE TO THE FRENCH ORIGIN IT IS CONSIDERED BOOKISH AND ASSOCIATED WITH EXQUISITE ELEVATED STYLE.
SUFFIXES OF NEGATIVE EVALUATION: -ARD, -STER, -EER, -MONGER: DRUNKARD , SCANDAL-MONGER, MOBSTER.
NEGATIVE AFFIXES : IN-, UN-, IR-, NON- - UNBENDING, IRREGULAR, NON-PROFIT.

CONSIDERING THE PROBLEM OF EXPRESSIVE AFFIXES DIFFERENTIATION SHOULD BE MADE BETWEEN NEGATIVE AFFIXES AND EVALUATIVE DEROGATORY AFFIXES. EVALUATIVE AFFIXES WITH DEROGATORY CONNOTATIONS DEMONSTRATE THE SPEAKER’S ATTITUDE TO THE PHENOMENON WHILE NEGATIVE AFFIXES NORMALLY REPRESENT OBJECTS AND PHENOMENA THAT ARE DEVOID OF SOME QUALITY OR DO NOT EXIST AT ALL.

ALL THESE EXAMPLES SHOW THAT STYLISTIC POTENTIALS OF GRAMMATICAL FORMS ARE GREAT ENOUGH. STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF A WORK OF ART AMONG OTHER THINGS SHOULD INCLUDE THE ANALYSIS OF THE GRAMMATICAL LEVEL THAT ENABLES A STUDENT TO CAPTURE THE SUBTLE SHADES OF MOOD OR RHYTHMICAL ARRANGEMENT OR THE DYNAMICS OF THE COMPOSITION.

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