Unit 4. Food Rules1 Lead-in Points to Ponder
1.The items below represent different reasons for which people choose foods. Arrange them in order of their importance they have for you and expand on your choice:
•the ‘looks’ of food
2.How does your lifestyle affect the choices you make about food you eat?
3.What are your family’s eating patterns? What are the foods you don’t eat too often or in large quantities? Why?
4.What do you think health food is? What is a healthy diet?
Reading 1. Food RulesIn 1949, the Hungarian George Mikes famously declared that: ‘On the Continent people have good food; in England they have good table manners.’ Later, in 1977, he observed that our food had improved somewhat, while our table manners had deteriorated.
Nearly thirty years on, Mikes’s comments still reflect the general international opinion of English cooking, as the travel writer Paul Richardson discovered when he told foreign friends that he was going to spend eighteen months researching a book on British gastronomy. His Spanish, French and Italian friends, he says, informed him that there was no such thing as British gastronomy, as this would require a passionate love of food, which we clearly did not have. They implied ‘that our relationship with the food we ate was more or less a loveless marriage’.
These criticisms are largely justified. But they are not the whole truth. The same goes for the opposite extreme – the current ‘Cool Britannia’ fashion for proclaiming that English cooking has in recent years improved out of all recognition, that London is the now the gastronomic capital of the world, that food is the new rock ‘n’roll, that we have become a nation of gourmets and ‘foodies’, and so on.
My impression is that it is neither as awful as its detractors would have us believe, nor as stupendous as its recent champions have claimed. It is somewhere in between. So, I am not interested in English food per se, but in the Englishness of English food rules.
THE AMBIVALENCE RULE
‘Loveless marriage’ is not an entirely unfair description of the English relationship with food, although marriage is perhaps too strong a word: our relationship with food and cooking is more like a sort of uneasy, uncommitted cohabitation. It is ambivalent, often discordant, and highly fickle. There are moments of affection, and even of passion, but on the whole it is fair to say that we do not have the deep-seated, enduring, inborn love of food that is to be found among our European neighbours, and indeed in most other cultures. Food is just not given the same high priority in English life as it is elsewhere. Even the Americans, whose ‘generic’ (as opposed to ethnic) food is arguably no better than ours, still seem to care about it more, demanding hundreds of different flavours and combinations in each category of junk food, for example, whereas we will put up with just two or three.
In most other cultures, people who care about food, and enjoy cooking and talking about it, are not singled out, either sneeringly or admiringly, as ‘foodies’. Keen interest in food is the norm, not the exception: what the English call a ‘foodie’ would just be a normal person, exhibiting a standard, healthy, appropriate degree of focus on food. What we see as foodie obsession is in other cultures the default mode, not something unusual or even noticeable.
Foodieness is somewhat more acceptable among females, but it is still noticeable, still remarked upon – and in some circles regarded as pretentious. No-one wishes to be seen as too deeply fascinated by or passionate about food. Most of us are proud to claim that we ‘eat to live, rather than living to eat’ – unlike some of our neighbours, the French in particular, whose excellent cooking we enjoy and admire, but whose shameless devotion to food we rather despise, not realizing that the two might perhaps be connected.
ANTI-EARNESTNESS AND OBSCENITY RULES
Our ambivalence about food may be due in part to the influence of the Importance of Not Being Earnest rule. Excessive zeal on any subject is embarrassing, and getting all earnest and emotional about something as trivial as food is, well, frankly rather silly.
But it seems to me that our uneasiness about food and foodieness involves something more than this. There is a hint here of a more general discomfort about sensual pleasures. Flaunting one’s passion for good food, and talking openly about the pleasure of eating it, is not embarrassing just because it is over-earnest but also because it is somehow a bit obscene. The sensual pleasures of eating, it seems to me, are in the same category – not exactly a taboo subject, but one that should only be talked about in a light-hearted, unserious, jokey manner.
Without such ironic detachment, foodie-talk becomes a form of ‘gastro-porn’ (the term normally refers to lavishly illustrated foodie magazines and cookbooks, with detailed, mouth-watering descriptions of each luscious dish – but can equally be applied to over-enthusiastic foodie conversation).
Although the idea that we are becoming a nation of discerning gastronomes is, I’m afraid, over-optimistic foodie propaganda – well, a gross exaggeration, anyway – interest in food and cooking has certainly increased in recent years. There is usually at least one food-related programme on every television channel, every day. Admittedly, some of the game-show-style programmes, in which chefs compete to cook a three-course meal in 20 minutes from five ingredients, are more entertainment than cookery – and my foreign informants found this approach to food either amusingly daft or shockingly irreverent.
Whether this actually translates into much real cooking in English homes is a matter for some debate. It is probably true to say that many English people avidly watch the celebrity TV chefs preparing elaborate dishes from fresh, exotic ingredients, while their own plastic-packaged supermarket ready-meals circle sweatily for three minutes in the microwave.
There are still very few households in England where fresh ingredients, pricey or otherwise, are painstakingly prepared and carefully cooked on a daily basis. The shelves of the more up-market upermarkets may be full of exotic vegetables, herbs and spices, but the majority of shoppers still have no idea what these ingredients are or how to cook them. I spent some time hanging around the fruit and veg sections in supermarkets, staring at things like wild mushrooms and lemongrass, and randomly asking fellow shoppers if they knew what one was supposed to do with them. Most did not, and neither, for that matter, did the supermarket staff.
THE NOVELTY RULE
I am, however, falling into a very English trendy-foodie trap here – equating ‘good’ food and ‘genuine’ interest in cooking with novel, foreign ingredients and new ways of preparing them. My foreign friends and informants find the frantic novelty-seeking of English foodies somewhat bizarre, and laugh at our constantly changing fads and fashions. One minute it’s sun-dried tomatoes with everything, the next minute these are passé and it’s raspberry vinegar, or garlic mash, or polenta.
This current novelty-obsession is not peculiarly English; the same trend can be observed among our colonial descendants in America and Australia, but they are much younger nations, composed of immigrants from a variety of cultures, with no traditional indigenous cuisine to speak of, so they have some excuse. We are supposed to be an old, established European culture, with centuries of tradition and a sense of history. Yet when it comes to food, we behave like teenage fashion-victims.
MOANING AND COMPLAINING RULES
In restaurants, as elsewhere, the English may moan and grumble to each other about poor service or bad food, but our inhibitions, our social disease, make it difficult for us to complain directly to the staff. We have three very different ways of dealing with such situations, all more or less equally ineffective and unsatisfying.
Most English people, faced with unappetizing or even inedible food, are too embarrassed to complain at all. Complaining would be ‘making a scene’, ‘making a fuss’ or ‘drawing attention to oneself’ in public – all forbidden by the unwritten rules. It would involve a confrontation, an emotional engagement with another human being, which is unpleasant and uncomfortable and to be avoided if possible. English customers may moan indignantly to their companions. They will not go back to that establishment, and will tell all their friends how awful it is, but the poor publican or restaurateur will never even know that there was anything amiss.
Some slightly braver souls will use method number two: the apologetic complaint, an English speciality. ‘Excuse me, I’m terribly sorry, um, but, er, this soup seems to be rather, well, not very hot – a bit cold, really . . .’ Sometimes these complaints are so hesitant and timid, so oblique, and so carefully disguised as apologies, that the staff could be forgiven for failing to grasp the fact that the customers are dissatisfied. As well as apologising for complaining, we also tend to apologise for making perfectly reasonable requests: ‘Sorry, but could we have the bill now please?’ and even for spending money: ‘Sorry, could we have another bottle of this, please? ’I always feel obliged to apologize when I haven’t eaten much of my meal: ‘Sorry, it was lovely, really, I’m just not very hungry’.
Finally, there is, as usual, the other side of the social dis-ease coin – English complaint-technique number three: the loud, aggressive, obnoxious complaint. The red-faced, blustering, rude, self-important customer who has worked himself into a state of indignation over some minor mistake – or, occasionally, the patient customer who eventually explodes in genuine frustration at being kept waiting hours for disgusting food.
CULINARY CLASS CODES
The popular novelist Jilly Cooper, who has a much better understanding of the English class system than any sociologist, quotes a shopkeeper who told her, ‘When a woman asks for back I call her “madam”; when she asks for streaky I call her “dear”.’ Nowadays, in addition to these two different cuts of bacon, one would have to take into account the class semiotics of extra-lean and organic bacon, lardons, prosciutto, speck and Serrano ham (all favoured by the ‘madam’ class rather than the ‘dear’), as well as pork scratchings and bacon-flavoured crisps (all decidedly ‘dear’-class foods, rarely eaten by ‘madams’).
English people of all classes love bacon sandwiches (the northern working classes call them ‘bacon butties’), although some more pretentious members of the lower- and middle-middle classes pretend to have daintier, more refined tastes, and some affectedly health-conscious upper-middles make disapproving noises about fat, salt, cholesterol and heart disease.
Very secure uppers and upper-middles, with the right accents and other accoutrements, can admit to loving any food with impunity – they will merely be regarded as charmingly eccentric. The more class anxious should take care to pick their charming eccentricity from the very bottom of the scale (chip butties) rather than the class nearest to them (tinned fruit in juice), to avoid any possibility of a misunderstanding.
Reading Comprehension Check
2 Answer the following text-based questions
How fair is it to describe the English relationship with food as a loveless marriage? What feeling or emotional state applies to this relationship most?
Considering food-related issues in what way are Englishmen different from their European neighbours?
What proves the fact that Americans are more particular about food than the English?
How do the English interpret “foody”? What does the word actually imply?
Does foodiness contribute to class distinctions or not? Is it an indication of refined tastes or is it considered to be pretentious?
Which rule seems to be more applicable in foodie conversation: the Importance of Being Earnest or the Importance of Not Being Earnest?
Do Englishmen find it obscene or appropriate to talk openly about the sensual pleasures of eating?
Is it an exaggeration to assert that in recent years the quality of English cooking has improved and that they’ve become a nation of discerning gastronomes? Why? Why not?
To what extent does watching cookery shows facilitate the process of cooking in English homes?
Which scores more points: painstakingly prepared dishes or plastic-packaged supermarket ready meals?
What trap are the English likely to fall into? Is their cuisine supposed to be indigenous? How acceptable is it for the English cuisine to incorporate novel foreign ingredients and dishes?
What prevents the English from complaining directly about inedible food or poor service?
What can cause an English customer to complain obnoxiously?
Do food preferences throw light on one’s social background or do they blur out all distinctions?
Text Vocabulary Boost
3 Find the words and word combinations in the text to fit the definitions below
1. the way in which someone eats their food; 2. to get all the necessary facts and information for something; 3. the art and science of cooking and eating good food; 4. to change completely; 5. someone who enjoys good food and wine; 6. surprisingly large and impressive; 7. not sure whether you want or like something or not; 8. not in agreement; 9. something that often changes suddenly; 10. continuing for a very long time; 11. relating to a whole group of things rather than to one thing; 12. someone who is very interested in cooking and eating food; 13. an extremely unhealthy interest in something; 14. someone or something that seems more important, intelligent, or high class than they really are in order to be impressive; 15. very serious and sincere; 16. to show your money, success, beauty etc so that other people notice it; 17. the state of not reacting to or being involved in something in an emotional way; 18. in a very generous way; 19. extremely good to eat or drink; 20. showing the ability to make good judgments; 21. not showing respect for customs, beliefs etc that most other people respect; 22. having a lot of small parts or details put together in a complicated way; 23. very carefully and thorough; 24. without any definite plan, aim, or pattern; 25. to consider that two things are similar or connected; 26. already in use existing for a long period of time; 27. a feeling of embarrassment that stops you from doing what you really want; 28. to hide a feeling so that people will not notice it; 29. to completely understand a fact or an idea; 30. very offensive, unpleasant, or rude; 31. polite and well-educated or belonging to a high social class; 32. strange or unusual behavior.
4 Highlight the words from (A) in the text and match their meanings to the words and phrases from (B)
A. Stupendous; fickle; single out; noticeable; zeal; earnest; obscene; lavishly; discerning; irreverent; translate into; elaborate; painstakingly; genuine; novel; frantic; indigenous; engagement; amiss; oblique; grasp; obnoxious.
B. Serious and sincere; generously; magnificent; involvement; shocking and offensive; real; changeable; obvious; choose; grip; discriminating; disrespectful; happen as a result; eagerness; native; rude; wrong; meticulously; hectic; indirect; new; intricate.
5 Comment on or explain the following phrases from the text
… our relationship with the food we ate was more or less a loveless marriage.
When it comes to food, we behave like teenage fashion-victims.
I am falling into a very English trendy-foodie trap.
…our inhibitions, our social disease, make it difficult for us to complain directly to the staff.
The popular novelist … has a much better understanding of the English class system.
6 Translate the following into English using the active words and word combinations from the text
Ухудшающаяся в стране экономическая ситуация привела к тому, что пообедать в респектабельном ресторане и попробовать изысканные блюда национальной кухни стало скорее роскошью, чем заурядным событием.
Ходят слухи, что в последние годы английская кухня изменилась до неузнаваемости, и что Англия стала раем для гурманов. Однако люди с изысканным вкусом не имеют однозначного мнения по этому вопросу.
Врожденная любовь французов к еде, иногда перерастающая в помешательство, не находит оправдания у их недоброжелателей, которые воспринимают такой подход к еде с ироничным отчуждением.
Во всех странах мира еда быстрого приготовления стандартная и практически ничем не отличается, в отличии от национальной еды. Но в последние годы ее пытаются обогатить разными вкусовыми добавками.
Некоторые надменные представители среднего и высшего классов выставляют напоказ свою страсть к еде, порой слишком усердно, т.к. для них избирательность в еде - один из атрибутов классовой принадлежности.
Из зоны военных действий поступали противоречивые сообщения о том, что ситуация была шаткой и скорее всего в ближайшем будущем окончательно ухудшится.
Вы можете ворчать сколько душе угодно, но, если открыто не выражать недовольство по поводу качества еды и обслуживания, недобросовестные рестораторы и владельцы закусочных никогда не узнают, что что-то идет не так, и будут пребывать в счастливом неведении.
Наши внутренние “тормоза” не позволяют нам жаловаться, хотя у нас есть к этому все основания. Наши жалобы выглядят робко, неуверенно и похожи на извинения.
В дорогих магазинах можно встретить грубых, высокомерных покупателей, которые хамским образом выражают свое недовольство и доводят себя до состояния бешенства из-за малейшей оплошности, допущенной персоналом.
Практически на каждом канале есть передачи о еде, в которых знаменитости учат зрителей готовить блюда из новых ингредиентов, чему люди старательно подражают. И тот факт, что эти блюда выглядят так аппетитно, что даже слюнки текут, вовсе не приводит к тому, что англичане начинают больше готовить дома.
Из всех участников кулинарных поединков трудно выбрать тех, кто на самом деле разбирается в этом, в отличие от тех, для кого это просто веселое времяпрепровождение.
У людей, заботящихся о своем здоровье, нет особых вкусовых предпочтений. Их нельзя уличить в погоне за новизной. Наоборот, они горячие приверженцы традиционной местной кухни и основных продуктов питания, которые можно есть без вреда для здоровья.
Для гурманов готовые к употреблению блюда в полиэтиленовой упаковке выглядят неаппетитными и даже несъедобными. Любители вкусно поесть становятся заложниками модных идей и богато иллюстрированных журналов. Они демонстрируют свои постоянно меняющиеся прихоти.
Некоторые люди помешаны на кулинарных шоу и с жадностью смотрят, как повара соревнуются в приготовлении обеда из трех блюд за 20 минут. Гурманы же полагают, что еда, приготовленная наспех, скорее утоляет голод, чем доставляет наслаждения. Такое отношение к еде они считают легкомысленным и непочтительным.
Полуфабрикаты стали колоссальным достижением пищевой промышленности. Они экономят время работающих женщин. Требуется лишь несколько минут, чтобы разогреть еду. И пока эти почти готовые к употреблению продукты вращаются в микроволновке, выделяя влагу, можно заняться чем-то другим.
Тем, кто знает толк в еде, кажется странным ставить знак равенства между качественной едой и новомодными блюдами. Нынешнее помешательство на новых, особенно экзотических блюдах, свойственно молодым людям, которые часто становятся жертвами моды.
Поборники английской кухни преувеличивают ее качество. Подлинно английские блюда совсем не такие изысканные и потрясающие, как они утверждают. Справедливо отметить, что английская кухня намного улучшилась за последние годы, но в Англии еде еще не уделяют такого повышенного внимания, как в других странах.
Что лучше: завуалированные жалобы скромных, терпеливых клиентов или беспардонные жалобы агрессивных, грубых и эксцентричных посетителей? Во всем должна быть золотая середина. Недовольные клиенты должны уметь ясно излагать свое мнение, никого при этом не оскорбляя.
Иногда трудно распознать жалобу, если воспитанный посетитель извиняется за то, что он не доел блюдо, т.к. не очень голоден или когда он, прождав больше положенного, вежливо осведомляется, скоро ли будет готов заказ.
Представители высшего общества, у которых обостренное восприятие классового сознания, признаются в любви к марочному французскому вину, подчеркивая свой утонченный вкус. Многие из них оказываются заядлыми коллекционерами редких образцов вин из старейших винных погребов.
Согласно так называемому кодексу классовых различий, представителям благородных сословий не подобает проявлять рьяный интерес к рисовому салату или салату с макаронными изделиями. Это будет слишком легкомысленно с их стороны. Единственная слабость, которую они могут позволить себе безнаказанно, это бекон, потому что англичане всех сословий любят бутерброды с беконом.
Further Language Boost
Language Transfer 1: ‘Food’ Collocations
7 Find in Text 1 the words that collocate with the word ‘food’. Study the word partnerships below and complete the sentences.
1._______ food can be eaten with one’s hands, as opposed to requiring utensils.
2.A food _______ is a catering concept in which a number of different food _______ share a common eating area.
3.Foods commonly considered _______ foods include salted snack foods, gum, candy, sweet desserts, fried _______ food, and sugary carbonated beverages.
4.Once found in health food _______, _______ food is now a regular feature at most supermarkets.
5.Food _______ have been used for centuries to enhance the appearance and flavour of food and prolong shelf life.
6.Restaurants must worry about food hygiene or food _______ when they prepare food for clients.
7._______ foods, which are designed for ease of consumption, include commercially prepared foods such as ready-to-eat foods, frozen foods such as TV dinners, shelf-stable products and prepared mixes.
8.The food _______ of a particular food is a measure of how good it is for you, based on its level of vitamins, minerals, or calories.
9.As in America, with the cuts to the food stamps system, people in the UK rely on volunteer-run food _______ to help them if they cannot afford to eat.
10.It provides plenty of food _______ for those writers who are wondering what it is that holds readers to the page.
11.Rice, a cheap _______ food, can be purchased in large quantities at a very low price, which is why it is the basis for cuisines across Asia and Latin America.
12._______ food is food, in contrast to fast food, that is normally a part of a complete meal, especially the traditional cuisine of a region.
13.Some basic functions of a food _______ include grinding herbs, chopping vegetables and blending fruits.
14._______ food has gone through a lot of changes in factories.
15._______ food is full of nutrients that are essential to growth, repair and prevention of diseases.
16.According to the latest research, the overall proportion of daily food _______ coming from fast cuisine venues is statistically equivalent for both genders.
17.Not a week goes by without another new food _______ – from almond milk to cauliflower pizza base.
18.Food _______ strikes when the service of food is not what customers expect. From cupcakes to burgers, customers are lashing out at restaurant staff.
Language Transfer 2. Word Building. Negative Prefixes
8 The words below with negative prefixes occur in Reading 1. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate word in the sentences suggested.
Misunderstanding, unfair, uncommitted, dissatisfied, unsatisfying, uncomfortable, inedible, unappetizing, unpleasant, ineffective, irrelevant, unserious, unusual
1. At times like these the legal system appears inhuman and _______ . 2. What made this extraordinary story even more _______ is that Lee was a woman. 3. He liked women, and before his marriage had enjoyed a succession of casual, satisfactory and _______ affairs. 4. Musicians can be utterly _______ people right up to the moment they pick up the instrument and produce something absolutely heartfelt and true. 5. The treatment was expensive and _______ , with a high recurrence rate. 6. But, as with such crimes in real life, such an answer is deeply _______ . 7. Today’s technology has made geography almost _______ . 8. The grey city took you in its mouth and spat you out as _______ and you felt you had survived something that would kill a normal person. 9. The man is not _______ but when he speaks, his words cut deep into her and she sees him as suddenly ugly. 10. Miller was obviously _______ with the questions and shifted in his chair. 11. And then they wonder why there are so many personal and world-wide _______s, war, misery, pain. 12. Handling complaints well can turn a _______ customer into a loyal one. 13. Love is the salt of life and without it, life would be tasteless and _______ .
9 Fill in the gaps with the correct article where necessary.
Speculate on what cooking really is: an art, a passion, a necessity. Is there a kind of sorcery, magic or alchemy in cooking? Or is it more about skills and experience? Which words apply to cooking and which to fortune-telling? Is there anything in common between cooking chocolate and telling fortune?
to require skills to work domestic magic an endless fascination
(take) painstaking stepsto look into hearts to see to the core of things wise fool’s gold to relish a layman’s magica tiresome necessity
to enjoy an art to sell dreams and comforts to wield marvels
to be a knack loving preparation to make incense
sensual magic a lightness of touch to probe into lives
a professional secret a harmless temptation to see longings
This is (1) __ art I can enjoy. There is a kind of sorcery in all cooking: in (2) ___ choosing of ingredients, the process of mixing, grating, melting, infusing and flavouring, the recipes taken from ancient books, (3) ___ traditional utensils – (4) ___ pestle and mortar with which my mother made her incense turned to a more homely purpose, her spices and aromatics, giving up their subtleties to (5) ___ baser, more sensual magic. And it is partly (6) ___ transience of it that delights me; so much loving preparation, so much art and experience put into (7) ___ pleasure which can last only a moment, and which only a few will ever fully appreciate. My mother always viewed my interest with indulgent contempt. To her, food was no pleasure but (8) ___ tiresome necessity to be worried over, a tax on the price of our freedom. I stole (9) ___ menus from restaurants and looked longingly into patisserie windows. I must have been ten years old - maybe older - before I first tasted (10) ___ real chocolate. But still the fascination endured. I carried recipes in my head like maps. All kinds of recipes; torn from (11) ___ abandoned magazines in busy railway stations, wheedled from (12) ___ people on the road, strange marriages of my own confection. Mother with her her divinations directed our mad course across Europe. Cookery cards anchored us, placed landmarks on the bleak borders. Paris smells of (13) ___ baking bread and (14) ___croissants; Marseille of (15) ___ bouillabaisse and (16) ___ grilled garlic. Berlin was Eisbrei with Sauerkraut and Kartoffelsalat, Rome was (17) ___ ice-cream I ate without paying in a tiny restaurant beside the river.
Mother had taught me what she could. How to see to the core of things, of people, to see their thoughts, their longings. But some people are unreadable, unreachable. Making (18) ___ chocolate is a different matter. Oh, some skill is required. A certain lightness of touch, speed, (19) ___ a patience my mother would never have had. But (20) ___ formula remains the same every time. It is safe. Harmless. And I do not have to look into their hearts and take what I need; these are wishes which can be granted simply, for the asking.
Guy, my confectioner, has known me for a long time. We worked together after Anouk was born and he helped me to start my first business, (21) ___ tiny pattisserie-chocolaterie in the outskirts of Nice. Now he is based in Marseille, importing (22) ___ raw chocolate liquor direct from South America and converting it to chocolate of various grades in his factory.
I only use the best. (23) ___ blocks of couverture are slightly larger than house bricks, one box of each per delivery, and I use all three types: (24) ___ dark, (25) ___ milk and (26) ___ white. It has to be tempered to bring it to its crystalline state, ensuring (27) ___ hard, brittle surface and (28) ___ good shine. Some confectioners buy their supplies already tempered, but I like to do it myself. There is (29) ___ endless fascination in handling (30) ___ raw dullish blocks of couverture, in grating them by hand – I never use electrical mixers - into the large ceramic pans, then melting, stirring, testing each painstaking step with (31) ___ sugar thermometer until just the right amount of heat has been applied to make the change.
There is a kind of (32) ___ alchemy in the transformation of base chocolate into this wise fool's gold; (33) ___ layman's magic which even my mother might have relished. As I work I clear my mind, breathing deeply. The windows are open, and (34) ___ through draught would be cold if it were not for (35) ___ heat of the stoves, (36) ___ copper pans, (37) ___ rising vapour from the melting couverture. The mingled scents of (38) ___ chocolate, (39) ___ vanilla, (40) ___ heated copper and (41) ___ cinnamon are intoxicating, powerfully suggestive; (42) ___ raw and earthy tang of (43) ___ Americas, (44) ___ hot and resinous perfume of the rainforest. This is how I travel now, as the Aztecs did in their sacred rituals. (45) ___ food of the gods, bubbling and frothing in ceremonial goblets. The bitter elixir of life.
I know all their favourites. It's (1) ___ knack, a professional secret like (2) ___ fortune-teller reading palms: My mother would have laughed at this waste of my skills, but I have no desire to probe further into their lives than this. I do not want their secrets or their innermost thoughts. Nor do I want their fears or (3) ___ gratitude. (4) ___ tame alchemist, she would have called me with (5) ___ kindly contempt, working domestic magic when I could have wielded marvels. But I like these people. I like their small and introverted concerns. I can read their eyes, their mouths, so easily: this one with its hint of (6) ___ bitterness will relish my zesty orange twists; this sweet-smiling one the soft-centred apricot hearts. For Guillaume, (7) ___ florentines, eaten neatly over a saucer in his tidy bachelor's house. Narcisse's appetite for (8) ___ double-chocolate truffles reveals (9) ___ gentle heart beneath (10) ___ gruff exterior. Caroline Clairmont will dream of (11) ___ cinder toffee tonight and wake hungry and irritable. And the children… (12) ___ Chocolate curls, (13) ___ white buttons with (14) ___coloured vermicelli, (15) ___ marzipan fruits in their nests of ruffled paper, (16) ___ peanut brittle, cracknels, assorted misshapes in half-kilo boxes… I sell (17) ___ dreams, (18) ___ small comforts, (19) ___ sweet harmless temptations to bring down a multitude of saints crash-crash-crashing amongst (20) ___ hazels and nougatines.
Flashback to Grammar 1. Participle I and Participle II10 Fill in the gaps with Participle I or Participle II in the required form in the article below.
Is the humble cuppa losing its appeal?
In 1657 a rumour went reverberating around London. A new elixir had arrived from the east: a leaf that, when _____¹, had seemingly magical qualities. It made the body “clean and lusty”; it vanquished illness and invigorated drowsy minds. The leaf was available from Garway’s Coffee House in Change Alley at 16 to 50 shillings per pound. It was called “by the Chinese Tcha, and by other nations Tay, alias Tee.”
So began our love affair with tea, a drink that has remained at the heart of British life for three and a half centuries, from Victorian afternoon teas to Lyons Tea Rooms. It’s a lukewarm mug of leaf water, _____ as a cure-all for life’s ills. “Nice cup of tea,” people say, when you’ve watched a vivid car accident or been _____ a terminal diagnosis, or _____ for a walk and it’s started raining. Whether the mafia has kidnapped you and made you kill a man with a gun to win your freedom or if you’ve done quite badly in an exam, someone will say: “Let me get you a nice cup of tea.”
Cut me and I bleed tea. So the news that tea sales are in hot water, while Nescafé is _____ in popularity is not easy to swallow.
We are in danger of becoming a nation of coffee drinkers. Some think we have been _____ by the sweet, milky depths of American coffee culture. Exotica from restaurant menus eventually filter through to the home front – why should drinks be different?
If our out-of-home habits do have an influence on what we choose to brew indoors, the reason for tea’s decline seems as clear as a Jing teapot. _____ never a culture of domestic milky drinks-making (cocoa doesn’t count), British coffee habits have been shaped by the pints of cappuccino and calorie-dense gingerbread-_____ cream-_____ nonsense _____ by the big coffee chains. Judging by their success we are ______ to stay in their expensive embrace.
Tea is a different matter. We have more _____ standards. Every British tea drinker who is in possession of both hands and a kettle has spent years perfecting their ideal method. Couples can spend a decade learning how to brew for their mutual delight.
We argue about how best to make tea. “Milk first!” some people say, wrongly. “No,” others say. “Milk after.” People are ready to duel to the death over how long a bag should be left in a mug, or whether a bag should even see a mug in the first place, whether a bag should be locked in the prison of a teapot and _____ of its blood through a spout. “No sugar!” people shout, as you waddle off to make another interminable cup of tea for them. Another will chime in: “A hundred sugars!”
Academics have recently uncovered the oldest tea in Britain, _____ once and for all that we have been tea bores for more than 300 years. If you do not think we are collectively _____ about tea, offer to do an office tea run right now. Someone will hold up one single finger while they rootle about in a desk drawer for a bag of green tea. Someone else will pass you a tiny carton of sweeteners or some agave. You’ll have to carry all of this to the kitchen, where there is someone you vaguely remember from the Christmas party _____ to make small talk with you. You have to go down to reception and ask if they’ve seen “the tray”. I don’t think it’s hyperbole to say that doing the tea run in the office is one of the worst punishments that can be inflicted on a human being.
This is our reality – big, _____ pots of the stuff; types of tea _____ after earls; _____ mugs with steam _____ out of them; special little teapot-_____ dishes on the side _____ high with old, cold teabags; special rectangular biscuits _____ for dunking. This is our world, awash with a liquid more _____ than oil.
Is tea good? We never ask. It is not good. It is exactly fine. And liking it is the worst possible English trait, up there with colonialism and the class system and thinking dentistry is bad. Next time you have a cup of tea, as you lift the heavy mug to your mouth, think: is this actually good?
Reading 2. The Three Fat Women of Antibes(after the story by W.S.Maugham. Abridged)
One was called Mrs Richman and she was a widow. The second was called Mrs Sutcliffe; she was American and she had divorced two husbands. The third was called Miss Hickson and she was a spinster. They were all in the comfortable forties and they were all well off.
They were great friends, Miss Hickson, Mrs Richman, and Arrow Sutcliffe. It was their fat that had brought them together and bridge that had cemented their alliance. They had met first at Carlsbad, where they were staying at the same hotel and were treated by the same doctor who used them with the same ruthlessness.
They drank their waters together, had their baths at the same hour, they took their strenuous walks together, pounded about the tennis court with a professional to make them run, and ate at the same table their sparse and regulated meals. Nothing impaired their good humour but the scales, and when one or other of them weighed as much on one day as she had the day before neither Frank’s coarse jokes, the bonhomie of Beatrice, nor Arrow’s pretty kittenish ways sufficed to dispel the gloom. Then drastic measures were resorted to, the culprit went to bed for twenty–four hours and nothing passed her lips but the doctor’s famous vegetable soup which tasted like hot water in which a cabbage had been well rinsed.
They would have been independent of anyone else if they had not needed a fourth at bridge. It was for this reason that Frank invited Lena Finch to come and stay with them at Antibes. They were spending some weeks there on Frank’s suggestion. She proposed then that on leaving Carlsbad they should take a house at Antibes, where they could get plenty of exercise – everyone knew that nothing slimmed you like swimming – and as far as possible could go on with the cure. With a cook of their own they could at least avoid things that were obviously fattening. The plan worked very well. They had a grand time. Two days a week they ate nothing but hard–boiled eggs and raw tomatoes and they mounted the scales every morning with light hearts. The machine they had bought registered kilogrammes, and they got extraordinarily clever at translating them in the twinkling of an eye to pounds and ounces.
But the fourth at bridge continued to be the difficulty. One morning when they were sitting in pyjamas on the terrace overlooking the sea, drinking their tea (without milk or sugar) and eating a rusk prepared by Dr Hudebert and guaranteed not to be fattening, Frank looked up from her letters.
‘Lena Finch is coming down to the Riviera,’ she said. ‘She married a cousin of mine. He died a couple of months ago and she’s just recovering from a nervous breakdown. What about asking her to come here for a fortnight?’
It was settled. And three days later Lena Finch arrived. Frank met her at the station. She was in deep but not obtrusive mourning for the recent death of her husband. Lena was not, however, depressed. Frank introduced the stranger to her two friends and they sat down in what was known as the Monkey House. It was crowded with chattering people in bathing costumes, pyjamas, or dressing–gowns, who were seated at the tables having drinks. Beatrice’s soft heart went out to the lorn window, and Arrow, seeing that she was pale, quite ordinary to look at, and probably forty–eight, was prepared to like her very much. A waiter approached them. Frank ordered a dry Martini for Lena and a mixed lemon and orange juice for herself and her two friends.
‘We find alcohol isn’t very good in all this heat,’ she explained.
‘Oh, it never affects me at all,’ Lena answered airily. ‘I like cocktails.’
The conversation was gay and easy, they all said the obvious things with gusto, and presently they strolled back to the villa for luncheon.
In each napkin were two little antifat rusks. Lena gave a bright smile as she put them by the side of her plate.
‘May I have some bread?’ she asked.
The grossest indecency would not have fallen on the ears of those three women with such a shock. Not one of them had eaten bread for ten years. Even Beatrice, greedy as she was, drew the line there. Frank, the good hostess, recovered herself first.
‘Of course, darling,’ she said and turning to the butler asked him to bring some.
‘And some butter,’ said Lena in that pleasant easy way of hers.
There was a moment’s embarrassed silence.
‘I don’t know if there’s any in the house,’ said Frank, ‘but I’ll inquire.’
The butler brought a long crisp roll of French bread. Lena slit it in two and plastered it with the butter which was miraculously produced.
A grilled sole was served. The rest of the luncheon consisted of lamb cutlets, with the fat carefully removed so that Beatrice should not be led astray, and spinach boiled in water, with stewed pears to end up with. Lena tasted her pears and gave the butler a look of inquiry. That resourceful man understood her at once and though powdered sugar had never been served at that table before handed her without a moment’s hesitation a bowl of it. She helped herself liberally. The other three pretended not to notice. Coffee was served and Lena took three lumps of sugar in hers.
‘You have a very sweet tooth,’ said Arrow in a tone which she struggled to keep friendly.
‘We think saccharine so much more sweetening,’ said Frank, as she put a tiny tablet of it into her coffee.
‘Disgusting stuff,’ said Lena.
Beatrice’s mouth drooped at the corners, and she gave the lump sugar a yearning look.
They met again just before dinner.
‘Don’t you ever think of your figure?’ Arrow asked with icy deliberation.
‘The doctor said I must eat.’
‘Did he say you must eat bread and butter and potatoes and cream?’
‘Yes. That’s what I thought you meant when you said you had simple food.’
‘You’ll get simply enormous,’ said Beatrice. Lena laughed gaily.
‘No, I shan’t. You see, nothing ever makes me fat. I’ve always eaten everything I wanted to and it’s never had the slightest effect on me.’
They talked the matter over late that night, after Lena had gone to bed, in Frank’s room.
‘Why can’t she eat the same as we do?’ asked Arrow viciously.
‘She’s a guest.’
‘Well, you heard what she said. The doctor told her she must eat.’
‘Then she ought to go to a sanatorium.’ ‘It’s more than flesh and blood can stand, Frank,’ moaned Beatrice.
‘It’s so vulgar to attach all this importance to food,’ Frank boomed, and her voice was deeper than ever.
‘After all the only thing that counts really is spirit.’
They decided that Lena should have the nourishing food that had been ordered her and they made a solemn resolution not to let it disturb their equanimity.
But human nature is weak. You must not ask too much of it. They ate grilled fish while Lena ate macaroni sizzling with cheese and butter; they ate grilled cutlets and boiled spinach while Lena ate pâté de foie gras; twice a week they ate hard–boiled eggs and raw tomatoes, while Lena ate peas swimming in cream and potatoes cooked in all sorts of delicious ways. The chef was a good chef and he leapt at the opportunity afforded him to send up one dish more rich, tasty and succulent than the other.
The butler disclosed the fact that he could make half a dozen kinds of cocktail and Lena informed them that the doctor had recommended her to drink burgundy at luncheon and champagne at dinner. The three fat women persevered.
Lena was going to stay with friends on the Italian Riviera and Frank saw her off by the same train as that by which she had arrived.
When she turned away from the departing train she heaved such a vast sigh of relief that the platform shook beneath her. She flung back her massive shoulders and strode home to the villa.
She passed through the Monkey House, looking about her to say good morning to anyone she knew, and then stopped dead still. She could not believe her eyes. Beatrice was sitting at one of the tables, by herself.
‘Beatrice, what are you doing?’ she cried in her deep voice.
It was like the roll of thunder in the distant mountains. Beatrice looked at her coolly.
‘Eating,’ she answered.
In front of Beatrice was a plate of croissants and a plate of butter, a pot of strawberry jam, coffee, and a jug of cream. Beatrice was spreading butter thick on the delicious hot bread, covering this with jam, and then pouring the thick cream over all.
‘You’ll kill yourself,’ said Frank.
She actually laughed in Frank’s face. My God, how good those croissants smelt!
‘It’s your fault. That blasted woman. For a fortnight I’ve watched her gorge like a hog. It’s more than flesh and blood can stand. I’m going to have one square meal if I bust.’
The tears welled up to Frank’s eyes. Suddenly she felt very weak and womanly. She would have liked a strong man to take her on his knee and pet her and cuddle her and call her little baby names. Speechless she sank down on a chair by Beatrice’s side. A waiter came up. With a pathetic gesture she waved towards the coffee and croissants.
‘I’ll have the same,’ she sighed. In a moment the waiter brought her croissants, butter, jam, and coffee.
‘Where’s the cream, you fool?’ she roared like a lioness at bay.
She began to eat. She ate gluttonously. The place was beginning to fill up with bathers. Presently Arrow strolled along. On her way she caught sight of Frank and Beatrice. She stopped. She could hardly believe her eyes.
‘My God!’ she cried. ‘You beasts. You hogs.’
She seized a chair. ‘Waiter.’ In the twinkling of an eye the waiter was at her side.
‘Bring me what these ladies are having,’ she ordered.
Frank lifted her great heavy head from her plate.
‘Bring me some pâté de foie gras, she boomed.
The coffee was brought and the hot rolls and cream and the pâté de foie gras and they set to. They spread the cream on the pâté and they ate it. They devoured great spoonfuls of jam. They crunched the delicious crisp bread voluptuously. They did not speak. What they were about was much too serious. They ate with solemn, ecstatic fervour.
‘I haven’t eaten potatoes for twenty–five years,’ said Frank in a far–off brooding tone.
‘Waiter,’ cried Beatrice, ‘bring fried potatoes for three.’ The potatoes were brought. Not all the perfumes of Arabia smelt so sweet. They ate them with their fingers.
‘Bring me a dry Martini,’ said Arrow.
‘Bring me a double dry Martini,’ said Frank.
‘Bring three double dry Martinis,’ said Beatrice.
They were brought and drunk at a gulp. The women looked at one another and sighed. The misunderstandings of the last fortnight dissolved and the sincere affection each had for the others welled up again in their hearts. They could hardly believe that they had ever contemplated the possibility of severing a friendship that had brought them so much solid satisfaction. They finished the potatoes.
‘I wonder if they’ve got any chocolate éclairs,’ said Beatrice. ‘Of course they have.’ And of course they had. Frank thrust one whole into her huge mouth, swallowed it and seized another, but before she ate it she looked at the other two and plunged a vindictive dagger into the heart of the monstrous Lena.
‘You can say what you like, but the truth is she played a damned rotten game of bridge, really.’ ‘Lousy,’ agreed Arrow.
But Beatrice suddenly thought she would like a meringue.
Reading Comprehension Check
11 Answer the following text-based questions
Who are the main characters of the story? What did they have in common and what brought them together?
Why did the women keep going to Carlsbad and how did they spend their time there? What was their diet like?
Why were the women spending some weeks at Antibes and why did Frank invite Lena Finch? Describe her.
What shocked the women at their first luncheon with Lena and why? What did they and Lena have for luncheon?
How did the women’s attitude to Lena change over time and why? What were the main reasons for the women’s discontent?
How did Frank feel when she saw Lena off at the station and why?
How did Lena’s visit influence the women and why?
What did the women’s feast after Lena’s departure consist of?
What vindictive dagger did Frank plunge into the heart of the monstrous Lena and why?
Over to you
Did you like the story? Who did your sympathies lie with and why?
Have you ever been on a diet? If yes, how did it make you feel? Was it effective?
Text Vocabulary Boost
12 Find English equivalents for the following words and word combinations in the story and use them in the sentences of your own (compose at least 15 sentences)
была дважды в разводе; 2. немного за сорок; 3. состоятельный; 4. безжалостность; 5. портить; 6. быть достаточным, чтобы рассеять уныние; 7. не бросающийся в глаза траур; 8. быть исключительно искусным в чем-либо; 9. в мгновение ока; 10. с удовольствием; 11. быть сластеной; 12. человеческая природа; 13. быть пошлым; 14. нарушить чье-либо спокойствие; 15. есть с жадностью, объедаться как свинья; 16. опять до краев заполнила их сердца; 17. вонзить кинжал мщения; 18. отвратительно играть в бридж; 19. паршиво; 20. упорно держаться, стоять на своем; 21. как загнанная львица; 22. некоторое время спустя они не спеша пошли обратно; 23. помышлять о том, чтобы разорвать дружеские отношения
13 Arrange the words into word combinations as they appear in the story and be ready to translate them:
with icythe opportunity
made a solemnthe fact
the roll ofaffection
14 Paraphrase or explain the underlined phrases from the story
They drank their waters together, had their baths at the same hour, and ate at the same table their sparse and regulated meals.
Lena slit it in two and plastered it with the butter which was miraculously produced. She helped herself liberally.
She passed through the Monkey House, looking about her to say good morning to anyone she knew, and then stopped dead still.
Beatrice’s mouth drooped at the corners and she gave the lump of sugar a yearning look.
…; twice a week they ate hard-boiled eggs and raw tomatoes, while Lena ate peas swimming in cream and potatoes cooked in all sorts of delicious ways.
When she turned away from the departing train she heaved such a vast sigh of relief that the platform shook beneath her.
Beatrice was spreading butter thick on the delicious hot bread, covering this with jam and pouring the thick cream over it.
I’m going to have one square meal if I bust
They devoured great spoonfuls of jam. They crunched the delicious crisp bread voluptuously.
They ate with solemn, ecstatic fervor.
15 Fill in the gaps with the words from the box in the correct form. Mind there are two extra words.
Obtrusive; to impair; to bring together; to slim; to dispel; to persevere; to fat; to pound about; to well up; to severe; to boom out
In her thirties and after three children she had to change her clothes completely. A professional designer explained to her that solid colors are more _______________ than pattered.
At first the citizens of the village backed up the construction of a new shopping center in the area but later they realized that such projects simply serve _________ the pockets of developers.
She had been listening to their argument for some time with unruffled equanimity but presently anger ___________ within her.
Strange as it may seem but some politicians don’t understand that any attack by a foreign power will inevitably _______ the people of a country __________ .
The house seemed gloomy and uninhabited but light pouring into the hall ___________ the shadows.
He solemnly stepped onto the stage and took a long pause before starting, for all the noises in the hall to die out. “Ladies and gentlemen”, his voice __________ in dead silence as a roll of thunder.
From the very beginning we understood that the weather conditions weren’t favorable for mounting the cliff and it can be tricky at first, but we __________________ .
After a fatal provocation the two countries __________ diplomatic relations and were on the verge of war.
A thunderstorm broke out, the electricity was cut off and the house was suddenly _____________ darkness.
We strongly recommend you to visit this restaurant. It is not expensive, the food is delicious and he waiters are friendly but not _______________.
Reading 3. Lifting the Lid On the Royals’ Appetitesby Rachel Cooke
In 2006, a story appeared in the newspapers, courtesy of Jeremy Paxman, who had been staying at Sandringham while researching his latest book, On Royalty. The gist of it was that the Prince of Wales was so fussy about his soft-boiled eggs that his staff would prepare up to seven for him every morning in the hope that at least one would be done to perfection.
When I first heard this, I clapped my hands together in glee. It seemed so perfect, so of a piece with what one already believed of Charles (unable even to put his own toothpaste on his toothbrush). Soon after, though, there came – a rebuttal. No, said a spokesman for Clarence House. Paxman’s anecdote was “totally untrue”. The Prince of Wales would eat his egg irrespective of whether or not its yolk was sufficiently runny. As denials go, this one was swift, and absolute. But it was also, to my mind, a failure. For one thing, it implicitly suggested that Charles thought himself quite the hero for ploughing manfully through a hard, dry egg. For another, more egg stories soon followed in its wake. Two years later, Mervyn Wycherley, Charles’s private chef during his first marriage, revealed that the prince’s security detail would inform the kitchen as soon as HRH was on his way home for tea. “His eggs had to be boiled for exactly four minutes,” said Wycherley. “It was never anything other than a four-minute egg. His detectives radioed his ETA ahead. I always kept three pans boiling – just to be safe.”
What is it with the royal family and eggs? If we are to believe Charles Oliver, a servant who worked at Buckingham Palace under Victoria, George VI and Queen Elizabeth II, and whose “lost” diaries were eventually used, in 2003, as the basis for a rather odd book called Dinner at Buckingham Palace, the royals have a “passion” for them. Like the rest of us, they like them scrambled, fried, boiled and poached, but they also enjoy them en cocotte à la crème (baked with cream, a treat they like to accompany with minced chicken); plat chasseur (garnished with chicken livers and a sauce of white wine, consommé and herbs); and farcis à la Chimay (stuffed with mushrooms and coated with Mornay sauce). Every day begins with an egg, and they’re eaten for tea, too – with crumpets, if you’re Prince Charles. The Queen favours brown eggs, believing that they taste better. Her great-great grandmother, Queen Victoria, ate her boiled egg, served in a golden egg cup, with a golden spoon.
This passion for eggs – such an everyday foodstuff and yet one that can be gussied up to a quite epic degree should cook be in possession of a sufficiently old-fashioned recipe book and large quantities of gelatin – pretty much sums up the royal family’s attitude to food. The modern royals, by which I mean Victoria onwards, have often managed to combine an unbounded extravagance with a certain ersatz asceticism.
Queen Victoria, who was convinced that “things taste better in smaller houses”, favoured plain food, a fact that set her against the fashion of the day, when French cuisine was all the rage (she had a French chef herself, in the form of Charles Elmé Francatelli, until he was dismissed). At home, she favoured pies and invalid soups – pearl barley or potato – washed down with her favourite drink, a mixture of claret and whisky.
On the other hand, when she visited Hatfield House, the home of the Marquess of Salisbury, in 1846, her host felt obliged to spend some £75,000 (at today’s prices) on food and drink for a three-day visit (£800 on turtle soup alone). She believed, too, in keeping an “imperial” table: one commensurate with her great nation’s place in the world. Dinners were elaborate, and, at lunch, curry and rice were always available, served by two Indian servants in elaborate uniforms of blue and gold.
Admittedly, these things do sometimes skip a generation. While he waited to become king, her son, Edward, the Prince of Wales, developed more lavish tastes. Abstemious he most certainly was not. A cooked breakfast would be accompanied by roast chicken and lobster salad to tide him over until lunch, which would itself consist of eight courses. This was followed by high tea, and then a dinner of 12 courses: two kinds of soup, whole salmons and turbots, vast saddles of mutton and sirloins of beef, not to mention several game birds, some devilled herrings and plenty of cheese. Finally, before bedtime, he would squeeze in a light supper of cakes and savouries. Edward, the playboy king, was so greedy that, at the theatre or opera, he would insist on an hour-long interval in order that he might take his supper in the royal box. Six heaving hampers of food – plovers’ eggs, cold trout, Parisian pastries – would duly be delivered by the palace.
George V was more modest: before he came to the throne, he lived in the relatively low-key York Cottage, on the Sandringham estate. It was decorated with new furniture, not old, as if he and his bride, the future Queen Mary, were just an ordinary middle-class couple, and he passed his time mostly in killing animals and tending his stamp collection. So when the First World War broke out, four years into his reign, it was perhaps unsurprising that Mary insisted on rationing in the palace – by some accounts even before the public was subjected to it. No one, according to her edict, was to eat more than two courses for breakfast, and the royal chefs were encouraged to create mock cutlets from minced meat. For his part, George prohibited the drinking of wine as long as the war lasted, and was happy to eat thin soup for elevenses, and mashed potato with everything.
Such deft PR continued with George VI, who also observed rationing during the Second World War. But George was married to Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother – a woman more royal than the royals. Last year, a collection of recipes by former staff and guests at the Queen Mother’s Scottish house, the Castle of Mey, was published, with a foreword by her ever-devoted grandson, Prince Charles – and just reading it is enough to make the arteries harden.
Elizabeth loved After Eight ice cream (to make quantities for six people you will need two boxes of After Eights and no fewer than six egg yolks), the Soufflé Rothschild created by Carême (its essential ingredient is Goldwasser, a strong liqueur containing flakes of gold leaf) and – what did I tell you about eggs? – Oeufs Drumkilbo, a sort of prawn-cocktail-meets-eggs-mayonnaise dish which she liked to serve on picnics. (Drumbilko is the next estate to Glamis Castle, the Queen Mother’s childhood hood; this dish was also served at the wedding of Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson in 1986).
And so it continues, the strange coupling of decadence and moderation. The royals remind me of the friend who points out, when the bill comes, that they did not have pudding – shortly before announcing they are off to their new second home for the weekend. We know that the Queen favours Tupperware, the better to keep her breakfast cereal fresh. We know she likes Irish stew, rissoles (pheasant, preferably), and a good cup of tea. But we know, too, that every morning she writes her heart’s desires in her menu book for the staff, that diners at Balmoral are piped into dinner, that footmen abound in all her homes.
The Duke of Edinburgh is said to be obsessed with barbecuing in quiet corners of his wife’s estates, but is it really him who loads up the Land Rover with charcoal? And when we’re told that he takes his electric frying pan everywhere, who is it, I wonder, who packs it for him? As for Prince Charles’s instructions to his cook not to waste the lovage that grows tall in the Highgrove kitchen garden – it must be used for soup! – this sounds admirable only until you remember that Charles’s household is 159 strong, and that his personal spending rose last year by some 50%.
How much do royal tastes influence the rest of us? Not much is the truth. Victoria and Albert might have introduced us to the Christmas tree, but we can’t blame them for the turkey; they usually had beef (though on one occasion, or so I read, they enjoyed a swan). There is coronation chicken, invented by Constance Spry and Rosemary Hume for the banquet to mark the Queen’s coronation in 1953 (I don’t know whether the Queen likes coronation chicken herself but, made right, with poached chicken rather than leftovers, and a light dressing rather than a slick of mayonnaise and curry powder, it is delicious).
There is Prince Charles’s range of organic Duchy Originals, though when you see how much HRH’s oat cakes, jam and herbal tea cost, what you feel mostly is the need to run in the direction of Lidl. But very little else. If anything, they’re rushing towards us these days. The Duchess of Cambridge shops at Spar, Morrison’s and Waitrose – she pushes her own trolley! – and at an Anglesey butcher, where she was seen spending 82p on lamb’s liver to make a gravy for a pie (contrast this with the San Lorenzo-loving Princess Diana, whose cooking skills were so limited her chef had to leave her a note explaining how to operate the microwave).
I know there are those who feel that while the most prominent family in the land continues to stalk and to shoot, blood sports will never be outlawed. But since I am not anti these things, I can’t say I mind terribly much. I once went stalking in Scotland for this magazine, and the experience was so bone-achingly exhausting, I began to think Charles might be tougher than he sometimes seems.
For my own part, I associate the royal family very strongly indeed with icing. To be specific, with the bright blue and red icing I used to decorate some cakes I made with my stepmother when it was the Queen’s silver jubilee. (Ah, the innocence of 1977, when all the world was one giant street party!) And with a certain kind of kitschy biscuit tin. The other day, in Marks & Spencer, I found my hand hovering for longer than it should have done over a tin of Diamond Jubilee shortbread. It was very pretty; quite understated as royal souvenirs go. I resisted, that day. But I know in my bones such a tin will eventually find its way into my shopping basket. Shortbread is always delicious – whether your attitude towards it is ironic, or not.
(based on The Guardian May 2012)
Reading Comprehension Check
16 Answer the following text-based questions
What story about the royals appeared in the British newspapers in 2006?
What other egg stories about Prince Charles were revealed to British people?
What did the book Dinner at Buckingham Palace tell British readers about the royals’ egg-eating habits?
What conclusion does the author of the article make about the royal family’s attitude to food?
What were Queen Victoria’s food preferences?
How lavish was an “imperial” table the host of Hatfield House had to keep during Queen Victoria’s three-day visit?
What tastes did Queen Victoria’s son Edward develop?
What was his visit to the theatre accompanied by?
What was George V’s lifestyle like? Why did his wife introduce rationing in the palace?
What were the Queen Mother’s tastes when it came to food and drink?
What dishes does Elizabeth II favour?
How big is the influence of the royal tastes on British people?
What is Prince Charles’s attitude towards organic food?
What conclusion does the author make about Princess Diana’s and the Duchess of Cambridge’s passion for cooking?
What makes the author think that bloody sports will never be outlawed in Britain?
What food does the author associate the royal family with? Why?
Text Vocabulary Boost
17 Find words and word combinations to mean the same in the text
1. expose; 2. by the permission or generosity of smb; 3. general meaning; 4. a feeling of joyful satisfaction; 5. proof of the falseness of the statement; 6. in a more liquid form than is usual; 7. to decorate a dish of food with a small amount of another food; 8. to fill a vegetable, chicken, etc with another type of food; 9. to cover something with a layer of a substance; 10. to dress yourself in an attractive way; 11. carefully prepared; 12. allowing only a little food, drink; 13. to help somebody during a difficult period by providing what they need; 14. a small amount of food with a salty taste; 15. not intended to attract a lot of attention; 16. to be always talking or worrying about a particular thing; 17. produced without using artificial chemicals; 18. to make something illegal; 19. popular but considered to have no real artistic value and to be lacking in good taste; 20. to stay in an uncertain way
18 Paraphrase or explain the following phrases from the text.
More egg stories soon followed in its wake.
His detectives radioed his ETA ahead.
This passion for eggs … pretty much sums up the royal family’s attitude to food.
The modern royals … have often managed to combine an unbounded extravagance with a certain ersatz asceticism.
… These things do sometimes skip a generation.
… He would squeeze in a light supper of cakes and savouries.
… Reading it is enough to make the arteries harden.
And so it continues, the strange coupling of decadence and moderation.
19 Translate the following into English using words and word combinations from the text
1. Когда вы приезжаете в чужую страну и идете на экскурсию по местным достопримечательностям, очень многое зависит от того, какой гид будет рассказывать вам об этом месте. Во время визита в Тауэр нам очень повезло, нашим гидом был Бифитер, проработавший там более 15 лет. Благодаря любезности нашего гида мы смогли увидеть самые интересные места этого замка; он приоткрыл для нас завесу тайн над легендами и мифами этой крепости.
2. Задание было чертовски сложным, и мы с трудом осиливали этап за этапом. Поэтому, когда до завершения оставался один шаг, мы были готовы плясать от восторга. Мы были уверены, что сделали все безупречно.
3. Девочки обычно обожают наряжаться в мамины платья и туфли, представлять себя взрослыми дамами, пробовать косметику и примерять побрякушки. Они долго прихорашиваются перед зеркалом, старательно красят глаза и губы и, даже иногда с помощью ножниц подгоняют наряд по себе, не думая, что будет потом.
4. Среди современных состоятельных людей, звезд эстрады, политиков и прочих знаменитостей очень модно сейчас окружать себя целыми отрядами службы безопасности. Эти отряды передают по рации вперед о продвижении охраняемого объекта и текущей ситуации. Сообщения передаются в четко сформулированной форме, т. к. неявные сформулированные команды могут повлечь за собой неверные действия.
5. Простая еда вовсе не означает, что это какой-нибудь супчик, предназначенный для больных, который надо запивать вином, виски или чем-нибудь еще. Это обычная пища, просто без всяких соусов, пищевых добавок и прочих ухищрений.
6. Если Вы слышите выражение «имперская» кухня, какие блюда Вы представляете себе в первую очередь? Черепаший суп, заливные осетры, жареные лебеди, туши кабана или быка, и уж конечно никакой умеренности в еде! Все должно соответствовать статусу! Поэтому удивительно узнать, что блюдо из курицы, изобретенное специально по случаю коронации монарха, это всего лишь вареная курица в соусе карри, которую часто готовят и даже продают в как полуфабрикат.
7. Для пикника мы заготовили три переносные корзины крышкой, полные различной провизии. Одно перечисление припасов могло заставить мышцы напрячься! Мы были уверены, что это поможет нам продержаться до вечера без проблем. Однако мы перестарались и лишь с большим трудом смогли осилить то, что с таким неумеренным старанием приготовили.
8. Говорят, что талант передается через поколение, и мы видели подтверждение этого в работах внука великого художника. Мы не могли не восхищаться его владением всей палитрой красок и оригинальным стилем, однако все отмечали странную смесь декаданса и модернизма.
9. Он был помешан на еде и его неумеренные аппетиты привели к тому, что у него появились болезни, связанные с избыточным весом. Врачи предупредили его, что если он не сбросит вес, то это приведет к печальным последствиям. Он даже подумывал о голодании, но потом он осознал, что умеренность в еде, лучше, чем полный отказ от нее.
10. Придворные, численностью более 150 человек, следили за тем, чтобы к столу подавались только изысканные блюда и, чтобы гости приглашенные на обед были приятно удивлены разнообразием кушаний и сервировкой стола.
11. Лакеи в домах знатных господ обычно питались тем, что оставалось после обеда их хозяев. Количество таких обедающих при королевском дворе было и есть весьма многочисленно.
12. Скандальная статья о недостойном поведении известного чиновника наделала много шума в общественных кругах. Ему даже пришлось подать в отставку вследствие этого. Однако за статьей последовало опровержение, и издатели принесли свои извинения за публикацию непроверенной информации.
13. Для приготовления блюд, рассчитанных лишь на внешний эффект Вам потребуется только фантазия, однако приготовление сложного соуса с изысканным вкусом может оказаться до боли изматывающим.
14. Шотландские волынщики гордо вышагивали по дворцовой площади и их волынки звучали как целый симфонический оркестр.
15. Мы очень старались не высказывать ему открыто, что нас давно беспокоили симптомы, указывающие на серьезную болезнь, т.к. он не терпел разговоров о своем здоровье.
Further Language Boost
Language Transfer 3: Noun Collocations
20 Below are several adjectives that occurred in Reading 3. Choose the suitable adjective to match the nouns in the clusters suggested. Mind there are two extra words. Add more nouns to form the collocations.
………… eggs (politician, …………)
………… skills (oil, utensils)
………… soup (layer, hair, …………)
………… soup (ticket, argument, …………)
………… cutlets (exams, …………)
………… yolk (nose, honey)
………… food (blouse, language, …………)
………… chicken (beef, potatoes)
………… eggs (words, signals)
………… dinners (excuses, preparations, …………)
Language Transfer 4: -ing nouns and – ing adjectives
21 Study the examples with -ing nouns and – ing adjectives from Reading 3. Translate them into Russian.
…His personal spending rose last year…
…I don’t know whether the Queen likes … a light dressing rather than a slick of mayonnaise ...
… George prohibited the drinking of wine as long as the war lasted.
… With the bright blue and red icing I used to decorate some cakes.
… Such a tin will eventually find its way into my shopping basket.
… We’re told that he takes his electric frying pan everywhere …
22 Put the correct form of the English –ing nouns corresponding to the Russian nouns below in the correct places in the following sentences.
I like to throw open the windows and give the room a good ______ every morning.
I’m sorry it’s so crackly but it’s the original 1948 concert ______ .
There was an official _______ to discover who was responsible for polluting the river.
There are some blogs that you return to again and again, not just to read the latest entry but to browse the archive of past _______.
A hundred years ago people used to attend public ______ outside local jails.
The band conquered the clubs in Taiwan - and went on to win loyal _______ among young Chinese across the region.
After the age of 40 our sleep patterns change, and we have many more nocturnal _______ than in our younger years.
The fact that we celebrate the _______ of a new year implies that we still believe in the future.
The ground is in a charming _______, surrounded by hills, although this does result in shadows over the ground in the late afternoon or evening.
Until this year the series was available only at film festivals and special _______.
There’s a _______ in Cuba that whenever there are two Cubans together, there are three opinions.
The motif of alien _______ peopling our planet is a very common one in science fiction.
23 Match each adjective in Column [A] with the appropriate noun in Column [B].
3 carving pan
4 shaving rod
6 building bag
16 paving water
24 The expressions below occur in Reading 3. Match the corresponding Russian equivalents to the following English words and word combinations from the text.
the gist of; so of a piece with; irrespective of; as denials go; for one thing; for another; reveal that; if we are to believe smb; eventually; as the basis for; like the rest of us; pretty much sums up; onwards; soon after, though, there came a rebuttal; on the other hand; this was followed by; finally; admittedly; by some accounts; for his part; continued with; and so it continues; but very little else if anything; but since I’m(not) anti these things; for my own part; to be specific; but I know in my bones; in the wake
The course is open to anyone (независимо от) age.
All criminal libel against the candidate was positively denied but (по мере того как опровержений становилось меньше) hesitations remained.
After endless wavering he (признался, открылся) he had kept all the facts in secret because of her.
If you managed to catch (основное содержание) of the article you will surely translate it correctly.
(Прежде всего) these qualities characterize him as a respectable man and (потом уже) as a fair politician.
The weather (если верить) the latest forecast is going to be fine on the weekends.
The situation appeared to be (настолько похожа на то) what we anticipated that we were barely surprised
Officials despite of the post (как и все остальные) like to be praised and valued.
We must admit that our last expedition (просто подытоживает) all strenuous labor of the former failures.
The news was like a bolt from the blue, we’ve put absolute trust in him and he (в конечном итоге) turned out to be a complete trickster.
All my previous notes, articles and other publications were successfully used (в качестве основы) of my first book.
A sport committee charged a famous sportsman with drug addiction (и хотя вскоре последовало опровержение) his spotless reputation was hopelessly ruined.
He challenged to publish his first story in a weekly magazine, (за этим последовала) a collected edition of short stories and poems and (наконец) he issued his full-value novel.
(Общеизвестно) practically every scientific breakthrough at first is regarded as a risky venture.
On the one hand we’d better vote for him but (с другой стороны) god only knows if he is going to keep his promises after winning the elections.
From the start up and (далее) our business was surprisingly successful and beneficial.
(По некоторым оценкам) the firm competitor was going to take over its less fortunate rival.
The prize winner was welcomed with a storm of applause and the president (со своей стороны) granted him a valuable monetary remuneration.
(Но мало что еще, если вообще что-то) we could add to all mentioned above.
A passion for collecting coins first gripped my great grandfather, the tradition of picking something (была продолжена) collecting stamps by my father (и так это продолжается) until now with my son collecting buttons.
The report delivered at the annual meeting was complete and comprehensive but I (со своей стороны) would like to add some more details (чтобы быть точным).
There are a lot of people who quite legally go in for hunting and fishing (но поскольку я не против подобных вещей) I can’t understand why it can’t be sold in the shops.
The accused is swearing that he is innocent and that he is slandered (но у меня нет ни тени сомнения) that he is telling lies.
It’s no wonder that the top manager of the firm has stepped down (вследствие) of the scandal.
25 Find the Russian equivalents for “egg” word combinations in [A] and idioms with “egg” in [B]. Use them in sentences of your own.
[A]. Expressions with “egg”
addled / rotten egg варить яйца-пашот (без скорлупы в кипятке)
lightly boiled / soft(-boiled ) egg варить яйца
hard-boiled egg яйцо всмятку
scrambled eggs тухлое яйцо
to boil eggs высиживать яйца
to fry eggs проверять свежесть яиц на свет
to hatch / incubate eggs крутое яйцо
fried eggs сырое яйцо
ham and eggs яичница-болтунья, омлет
raw egg яичница с ветчиной
to beat eggs (to whisk eggs) делать яичницу
to candle eggs яичница-глазунья
to lay eggs нести яйца
to poach eggs взбивать яйца
[B]. ‘Egg Idioms’
a bad egg "любишь есть яйца, примирись с кудахтаньем кур"; ≈ любишь кататься, люби и саночки возить
better an egg today than a hen tomorrow нечто несколько подпорченное, но не совсем негодное
the curate's egg 1)молодец, молодчина; славный малый
good egg это практически невыполнимое дело
he that would have eggs must endure the cackling of hens "положить все яйца в одну корзину", рисковать всем; ≈ поставить всё на одну карту
have all one’s eggs in one basket что-л. не оправдавшее ожиданий; неудача, провал
it is very hard to shave an egg "лучше яйцо сегодня, чем курица завтра"; не сули журавля в небе, а дай синицу в руки
lay an egg мерзкая личность, скотина
a rotten egg 1)ступать, действовать осторожно
2)быть в щекотливом положении
a tough egg грубиян; опасный противник
tread on eggs 1)сбросить бомбу;
2)с треском провалиться (о выступлении, спектакле и т.д.
26 Cooking practice
Revise [A] - cutting verbs and [B] – cooking words: 1. Give the corresponding Equvalents in Russian; 2. Provide each of them with at least three examples
[A]. Cutting verbs:
Grate (grind) -
[B]. Cooking words
27 Arrange words below into word combinations:
A clove ofcelery
A fillet ofbutter
A knob ofFish
A pinch ofgarlic
A rasher ofsalt
A spring oflemon
A stick ofbacon
A wedge ofparsley
28 Pick out different names of meals from the text, tell how they are cooked and add descriptions of other unusual, queer and weird dishes you can find.
29 Read the text below and decide which answer best fits each numbered space.
Wellness App Aims to Improve Workplace Nutrition
By Stephanie Strom
A growing number of companies are offering their employees digital tools to help improve their (1) _____ habits in hopes of increasing productivity, reducing sick days and cutting health care costs.
With an app and a website, Zipongo, a small digital start-up, is aimed at helping employees navigate a company’s cafeteria menu to find (2) _____ that best (3) _____ a set of preferences and health goals set by the workers themselves.
But Zipongo also extends its reach to (4) _____ meals and the home kitchen, offering recipes, shopping lists and discounts on (5) _____ items like fruits and vegetables.
Since it made its debut in 2011, Zipongo has connected with some 125 companies to let employees try it, although none have made it mandatory.
While Google was an early (6) _____ a few years ago, IBM was among the most recent and began offering Zipongo to its tens of thousands of United States employees in January. Like other companies, IBM has long worked to (7) ______ its employees to healthier eating, even using a “traffic light” system to indicate which cafeteria foods might be good choices. In 2007, the company offered a $150 cash rebate for IBM families recording their healthier eating habits in a confidential online system for eight weeks.
Zipongo is also working with entities like Virgin Pulse and Benefitfocus, and health plans like Blue Cross Blue Shield of South Carolina and Independent Health. So-called “wellness” companies are now benefiting from a provision in the federal health care law that requires insurers to cover obesity screenings and (8) _____ counseling for many employees.
On average, Zipongo (9) _____ employers a little more than $50 a year per employee for a complete set of its services, Dr. Langheier, the founder of Zipongo, said.
At Google, which has (10) _____ healthy eating for several years, employees have been using Zipongo since 2013.
About half of Google employees who signed up for Zipongo used the app at least once a month in 2014, according to a Harvard Business School case study. (One of the study’s authors is an investor in Zipongo.)
Users plug in their food (11) _____ – spicy, gluten-free, protein-rich — and, if they want, biometric data like cholesterol and blood pressure levels. Zipongo then creates a menu from the choices in Google’s cafeteria.
Google employees using Zipongo ate more fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, calcium, fish and fiber-(12) _____ foods. Google also saw a dip in red meat (13) _____ among its Zipongo users, which was one of its goals.
But Dr. Langheier, who has a degree in public health as well as a medical degree, said he did not invent Zipongo to reach only high-paid workers at tech companies like Google and IBM. Inspiration for the system came from work he did as a pro bono consultant where he first realized the obstacles doctors faced in offering (14) _____ advice to (15) _____ patients.
“We spend $8,500 a year in the U.S., on average, for health care for one person, and just $2,200 on food, yet we rank 35th globally for life expectancy,” Dr. Langheier said. “In Japan, they spend about $3,200 on health care and $3,300 on food – and they rank second for life expectancy.”
(The New York Times)
1.a) mealb) groceryc) eatingd) food
2.a) choicesb) decisionsc) optionsd) preferences
3.a) meetb) determinec) correspondd) challenge
4.a) dine-outb) fastc) snackd) takeout
5.a) shoppingb) groceryc) shortlistd) product
6. a) adopterb) introducerc) implementerd) installer
7. a) steerb) pursuec) supplyd) wheel
8. a) mealb) foodc) nutritionald) dietician
9. a) tollsb) bidsc) demandsd) charges
10.a) promotedb) advertisedc) enhancedd) primed
11.a) inclinations b) preferencesc) prioritiesd) interests
12.a) fullb) filledc) rich d) abundant
13.a) consumptionb) take-inc) used) charge
14.a) dieticianb) mealc) foodd) diet
15.a) thickb) overweightc) badly-figuredd) fatty
Flashback to Grammar 2. Modal Verbs30 Fill in the gaps with the proper modal verb or its equivalent and the required form of the infinitive for the verb in brackets.
JUNK FOOD HEAVEN
I __________ (1 clean) out the fridge the other day. Down on my knees, I __________ (2 unwrap) pieces of foil and peering cautiously into Tupperware containers for about ten minutes, when I came across an interesting product called a breakfast pizza and I examined it with a kind of rueful fondness as you __________ (3 regard) an old photograph of yourself dressed in clothes that you _________ (4 not / believe) you ever thought were stylish. The breakfast pizza, you see, represented the last surviving relic of a bout of very serious retail foolishness on my part.
Some weeks ago my wife and I agreed that I __________ (5 go) to the supermarket with her next time because the stuff she kept bringing home was – how __________ (6 I / put) this? – not fully in the spirit of American eating. Here we __________ (7 live) in a paradise of junk food – the country that gave the world cheese in a spray can – and she kept bringing home healthy stuff like fresh broccoli and packets of Ryvita.
It was because she was English, of course. She __________ (8 not / understand) the rich, unrivalled possibilities for greasiness and goo that the American diet __________ (9 offer). I longed for artificial bacon bits, melted cheese in a shade of yellow unknown to nature, and creamy chocolate fillings. I wanted food that squirts when you bite into it or plops on to your shirt front in such gross quantities that you __________ (10 rise) carefully from the table and limbo over to the sink to __________ (11 clean) yourself up. So I accompanied her to the market and while she was off squeezing melons and pricing shiitake mushrooms I made for the junk food section – which was essentially all the rest of the store. Well, it was heaven.
The breakfast cereals alone ____________ (12 occupy) me for most of the afternoon. There __________ (13 be) 200 types. Every possible substance that __________ (14 dry), __________ (15 puff) and __________ (16 coat) with sugar was there.
I grabbed one of each of the cereals and two of the oatmeal – how often I’ve said that you __________ (17 not / start) a day without a big steaming bowl of cookies – and sprinted with them back to the trolley.
‘What’s that?’ my wife asked in the special tone of voice with which she often addresses me in retail establishments.
‘Breakfast for the next six months,’ I panted as I dashed past, ‘and you __________ (18 not / think) even about putting any of it back and getting muesli.’
__________ the market for junk food (19 proliferate) so much? Everywhere I turned I was confronted with foods guaranteed to make you waddle, most of which were entirely new to me.
It __________ (20 be) the breakfast pizza that finally made my wife snap. She looked at the box and said,
‘No, you __________ (21 never / bring) home something called breakfast pizza. You _________ (22 have)’ – she reached out into the trolley foe some specimen samples – ‘root beer buttons and toaster strudel and …’ She lifted out a packet she hadn’t noticed before. ‘What’s this?’
‘Microwave pancakes,’ I said.
‘You __________ (23 eat) it all,’ she said. ‘Every bit of everything that you don’t put back on the shelves now.’
‘Of course,’ was the only thing I __________ (24 say) in my sincerest voice.
She actually made me eat it. I spent weeks working my way through a symphony of American junk food, and it was all awful. I thought American junk food __________ (25 get) worse or my taste buds __________ (26 mature), but even the treats I’d grown up with now seemed discouragingly pallid or disgustingly sickly. And then, feeling peckish, I went off to the larder to see if I __________ (27 find) a nice plain piece of Ryvita and maybe a stick of celery.
(after “Notes from a Big Country” by Bill Bryson)
31 Render the following into English
Красная креветка и белый колпак
О гиде Michelin и его собратьях рассказывает Андрей Захарьин, главный редактор журнала «Гастроном», представитель премии “The world’s 50 best restaurants” в России и Центральной Азии.
Один из самый влиятельных и известных международных справочников – Красный гид Michelin. Он существует уже 113 лет, и получить хотя бы одну звезду – из максимально возможных трех – мечтают тысячи шеф-поваров. Авторитет гида – в полной конспирации. Все инспекторы работают инкогнито, их мало кто знает в лицо, а значит, крайне трудно подкупить.
Звезды «Мишлен» раздает лишь респектабельным ресторанам с авторской кухней. Чтобы получить, а тем более удержать награду, поварам приходилось буквально жить на работе, забывая обо всем. В 1966 году французский повар Ален Зик застрелился, узнав что его ресторан лишился мишленовской звезды. С Жераром Бессоном по той же причине в 2003-м случился сердечный приступ. Бернар Луазо в 2004 году покончил с собой лишь из-за слухов о возможной потере одной из звезд.
Подобная ситуация нравится далеко не всем поварам. В 1999 году британец Марко Пьер Уайт публично отказался от трех звезд, заявив, что ему надоело быть «заключенным в собственном ресторане» и что «инспекторы «Мишлена» гоняются за утонченностью, игнорируя прекрасную кухню». Последователи Уайта создали целое антимишленовское движение, объединяющее поваров, для которых обаяние места важннее формальностей, создав, например, «Совет молодых поваров Европы» или фестиваль Omnivore, куда пускают любых не банально мыслящих поваров.
Американцы более демократичны: самый популярный в США гид Zagat дает обзоры как дорогих ресторанов, так и фастфуда. Но главное – попадание в справочник зависит от самих потребителей, которые присылают в редакцию отзывы на свои любимые рестораны и голосуют на специальном сайте. В создании каждого выпуска принимают участие около двухсот тысяч человек.
Итальянцы – нация эмоциональная, поэтому все обзоры в самом массовом ресторанном справочнике Gambero Rosso написаны с максимальной экспрессией. Неизвестно, что привлекает читателей больше – оценка заведения или неповторимый авторских стиль. Инспекторы посещают как пафосные, так и недорогие рестораны, лучшие награждаются тремя вилками. Gambero Rosso сегодня не просто справочник, а целая медиаиндустрия. Под этим брендом выпускаются кулинарные книги, приложения для телефонов и iPad, работает телеканал, посвященный кулинарии, и турагентство, занимающееся гастрономическим туризмом. Gambero Rosso принадлежат школы журналистов, сомелье и ресторанных менеджеров, книжный магазин, ресторан и огромный винный погреб.
Лучшие рестораны Азии определяет The Miele Guide. Система отбора длинная и путанная – в ней участвуют и местные критики, и повара из других стран, и простые пользователи интернета. Финальный этап – обед представительного жюри в ресторанах-фаворитах и выбор 20 региональных победителей.
И наконец, детище британских ресторанных журналистов – международная премия The World’s 50 Best Restaurants. Лауреатов премии выбирают буквально всем миром : ресторанные критики, повара, рестораторы, авторы кулинарных книг, популярные фуд-блогеры разных стран на сайте премии называют 7 своих любимых заведений. Лучших ежегодно награждают в Лондоне.
(based on www.go.ru)
Speaking Transfer: ‘Speaking Words of Wisdom’
32 Comment on the following quotes on food and cooking
1.Worthless people live only to eat and drink; people of worth eat and drink only to live. (Socrates)
2.Today men don’t ask their wives, "What’s cooking?" They ask, "What’s thawing?" (Unknown source)
3.I went on a fourteen-day diet, but all I lost was two weeks. (Unknown source)
4.Dieting is a way of starving to death so you can live longer. (Unknown source)
5.Gluttony is an emotional escape, a sign something is eating us. (Peter de Vries)
6.Some people have a foolish way of not minding, or pretending not to mind what they eat. For my part, I mind my belly very studiously, and very carefully; for I look upon it, that he who does not mind his belly will hardly mind anything else. (Samuel Johnson)
7.Few among those who go to restaurants realize the man who first opened one must have been a man of genius and a profound observer. (Anthelme Brillat-Savarin)
8.A full belly is the mother of all evil. (Unknown source)
9.An empty belly hears nobody. (Unknown source)
10.Moderation is an ostentatious proof of our strength of character. (La Rochefoucauld)
Listening ModuleFood: How to spot a fad diet
Mia Nacamulli (4:33 мин.)
You are going to watch an animated video created by Mia Nacamulli giving the facts on fad (popular for a short time) diets.
Before you listen:
Think about the famous diets you know and discuss them in small groups of two or three. Why do you think people keep falling for fad diets? What is it about them that makes them so appealing?
Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions if you know them or look them up in a dictionary:
fad (adjective / noun)
allure (noun / verb)
Now watch the video and make a list of the diets mentioned. Explain what they consist in.
Watch again and answer the following questions:
What does marketing of fad diets take advantage of?
Where do diet fads come from?
How do fad diets, e.g. low-carbohydrate diets and high-protein diets, work? What happens if a diet is abandoned?
What characteristics of a diet let us know that it is a fad diet?
What other claims apart from weight loss do fad diets make? Are these claims well-founded and why? Why might marketers emphasize the association between superfoods and ancient cultures?
Whose advice should you follow if you want to go on a diet and why?
Over to you
Has the video changed your attitude to diets? If yes, in what way? What advice would you give to those who want to lose weight?
Match the following words and expressions with their Russian equivalents, then fill in the gaps in the sentences below with the expressions:
to come about приводить в равновесие
to rally behind появляться
to balance out останавливать выбор на чем-то
to cut back сплотиться вокруг
to cut out снижать, уменьшать
to opt for способствовать
to get ahead исключать
to assist with добиваться успеха, преуспевать, процветать
to shed pounds превосходить преимущества
to tout weight loss снижать вес
to jumpstart weight loss расхваливать, рекламировать снижение веса
to detox the body выдержать проверку временем
to outweight the benefits быстро привести к обратному эффекту
to be inherently wrong запустить, начать снижение веса
to adjust to the shift сбрасывать килограммы
to result in a quick reversal очищать организм
to withstand history приспособиться к изменению
to abandon a diet быть по сути неверным
to drop / lose weight отказаться от диеты
in the big picture умеренно
in earnest быстро, сразу, вскоре
in moderation в наличии, имеющийся
in question по большому счету
in place основательно, серьезно
early on о котором идет речь
red flag общепринятое представление, бытующее мнение
calorie intake впечатляющие результаты
a quick-fix solution простые рекомендации
conventional wisdom калорийность, потребление колорий
dramatic results сиюминутное, быстрое решение
simple guidelines сигнал опасности
________________________________ about diets, including government health recommendations, seems to change all the time.
And yet, ads routinely ________________________________ claiming to have the answer about what we should eat.
Marketing takes advantage of the desire ________________________________ fast, and be stronger, slimmer, and brighter.
And ________________________________, diet plans promising ________________________________, known as fad diets, are just what they seem: too good to be true.
While the Ancient Greeks and Romans ________________________________ large-scale health regimens centuries earlier, this phenomenon began ________________________________ in the Victorian Era with crazes like the vinegar diet and the Banting Diet.
If the idea of diet crazes has ________________________________, could this mean that they work?
Sodium is lost until the body can __________________ itself _____, and temporary fluid weight loss may occur.
With other high-protein diets, you might lose weight at first since by restricting your food choices, you are dropping your overall ________________________________.
But your body then lowers its metabolic rate to ________________________________, lessening the diet's effect over time and ________________________________ if ________________________________.
So while these diets may be alluring ________________________________, they don't guarantee long-term benefits for your health and weight.
A few ________________________________, though, can help differentiate between a diet that is beneficial in maintaining long-term health, and one that only offers temporary weight changes.
Here's the first tipoff: If a diet focuses on intensely ________________________________ calories or on ________________________________ entire food groups, like fat, sugar, or carbohydrates, chances are it's a fad diet.
And another ________________________________ is ritual, when the diet ________________________________ instructs you to only eat specific foods, prescribed combinations, or to ________________________________ particular food substitutes, like drinks, bars, or powders.
The truth is ________________________________ in the long run simply doesn't have ________________________________.
Not all diet crazes ________________________________. What about claims of superfoods, cleanses, and other body-boosting solutions?
They are healthy additions to a balanced diet, yet often, they're marketed as part of sugary drinks or cereals, in which case the negative properties ________________________________.
Cleanses, too, may be great ________________________________ since they can ________________________________ ________________________________ and can increase the number of fresh fruits and vegetables consumed daily.
Scientifically speaking, though, they've not yet been shown to have either a long-term benefit or ________________________________ any better than the natural mechanisms already ________________________________.
Everywhere we look, we're offered solutions to how we can look better, feel fitter, and generally ________________________________.
Diets and food fads _______not____________________. Circumstantially, they might even be right, just not for everyone all of the time.
Active Vocabulary ListReading 1
Topical Vocabulary General Vocabulary
a gourmet /a foodie to deteriorate
foodieness to justify
generic /ethnic food recognition
a food-related programme ambivalent
an elaborate dish to single out
a plastic-packaged ready-meal obsession
a novel ingredient pretentious
indigenous cuisine to flaunt one’s passion
inedible ironic detachment
a publican lavishly
a restaurateur discerning
a dainty taste daft
to translate into
to be amiss
work oneself into
General Vocabulary Topical Vocabulary
courtesy of smb
in its wake
to be gussied up
to be elaborate
to tide smb over
to be kitschy to be done to perfection
to garnish with smth
to be stuffed with smth
to be coated with smth
Supplementary Reading Module“Americans’ eating habits have begun changing for the better.”
LIKE many of you, I’ve been paying close attention to nutrition this summer, eating healthier foods and picking up some useful tips along the way.
For instance, nuts are good for your cardiovascular system because they contain unsaturated fatty acids. I’ve taken to eating them with raisins in trail mix and discovered that if you buy the kind with enough M & Ms you barely taste the nuts and raisins. It’s almost like eating candy.
Breakfast is the most important meal of the day, and as Catherine Saxelby deftly notes on the Foodwatch site: “There are oodles of breakfast cereals. What I want is one with the most fiber and/or whole grains but the lowest sugars and sodium.”
Thing is, the cereals Ms. Saxelby favors are painfully bland. My trick is to add oodles of maple syrup, because almost anything healthy — except, of course, kale — tastes better with maple syrup.
Cooking Light magazine reminds us that “Popcorn has a lot of bulk for its calories so it helps fill you up.” They suggest three and a half cups of fat-free popcorn made in a microwave. However, I feel even more filled up after eating an entire bag from Trader Joe’s, preferably the kettle-corn variety. Snacking is more guilt-free once you realize that popcorn is good for you.
Many “health nuts” hail hummus, that Middle Eastern mush of chickpeas, tahini and other flavorings. I’ve incorporated hummus into my diet by combining it with a large bag of ruffled or “scoop-style” potato chips and a significant quantity of beer. (I always choose a “light beer” to avoid “empty calories.”)
Full disclosure: I’ve never been a fan of plain yogurt, even drowned in maple syrup. Yet science tells us this B12-rich food works wonders, such as reducing moodiness. So I’d like to give a shout out to the Yoplait company for thoroughly de-yogurtizing yogurt.
Among Yoplait’s best flavors are Strawberry Cheesecake and Boston Cream Pie. My personal favorite is Banana Split. I’ll bet Yoplait doesn’t even realize that health-conscious kids are drawn to the photos of cake and pie on the containers.
I struggled with diet and nutrition until I read this helpful advice from WebMD: “If you eat a high-calorie food or meal, balance your intake by choosing low-calorie foods the rest of the day or the next day.”
This simple tip has pretty much changed my life. Now I can eat a large pizza with three toppings from Domino’s while on the couch watching a ballgame, knowing that although it is “high-calorie,” I’ll conscientiously eat only low-calorie food, like popcorn, in the remaining hour or so before bed.
As you chart your diet, remember that nothing counts if it’s eaten outside your home — at a party, a restaurant, sports stadium, etc. These are places where experts advise, “be good to yourself.” Another thing: Free food never counts against a diet, nor does birthday cake, nor Buffalo wings in an all-you-can-eat buffet.
Finally, if you’re not consuming enough fresh fruit, join the civilized world in using one of those juice-making machines. Here’s a recipe I found online that works with any fruit. Liquefy, then mix two parts juice with one part vodka.
Here’s to your health!
(The New York Times, July 26 2015)