UNIT 4


UNIT 4.GRAMMAR.I. Past Simple vs. Past Continuous.
NB We use the past simple
- for finished events in the past which have a definite time.
e.g. In 1969 the first man landed on the Moon.
- in narrative (for sequences of actions).
e.g. The door opened and two boys came into the room.
- for past habits and routines (repeated actions) usually with time expressions.
e.g. Few people in Victorian times took a bath every day.
We use the past continuous:
- to describe a continuing unfinished action in the past.
e.g. I looked out of the window and saw that it was raining.
- for a continuing unfinished action interrupted by a sudden past action.
e.g. While I was getting ready for bed, the doorbell rang.
- for activities as background description.
e.g. Darkness was descending over the hushed city as James staggered back to college.
- for two continuing events happening at the same time.
e.g. We were watching the sky and listening for the first sounds of the dawn chorus.
1. Complete the text with the verbs in the box (there is one verb too many). You will need five past progressives and three simple pasts.
ask come dance grin hold not dance order play throw
On the dance floor half a dozen couples (1) themselves around. Most of them (2) cheek to cheek, if dancing is the word. The men wore white tuxedos and the girls wore bright eyes, ruby lips, and tennis or golf muscles. One couple (3) cheek to cheek. Mitchell's mouth was open, he (4), his face was red and shiny, and his eyes had that glazed look. Betty (5) her head as far as she could get away from him without breaking her neck. It was very obvious that she had had about all of Mr Larry Mitchell that she could take.
A Mexican waiter in a short green jacket and white pants with a green stripe down the side (6) up and I (7) a double Gibson and (8) if I could have a club sandwich. Raymond Chandler: Playback
2. Complete each paragraph with one set of verbs, using the past simple or past continuous.
miss /not get / wonder break / see / steal / teach
come / listen / make / say explain / talk / understand
1. We (1)................... to music when one of the neighbours (2)... to the door
and (3)........................ she couldn't sleep because we (4)..... too much noise.
2. Someone (5)…..….into Barbara's office and (6).............. her computer
yesterday afternoon while she (7)………her history class. No one
(8).......................... the thief.
3. Because he never (9)……..anything very clearly, none of us (10)……..
what the science teacher (11).............. about most of the time.
4. I'm sorry. I (12)............... here on time and I (13).......... the beginning of
your presentation, but I (14).............. if you might have an extra handout left.
NB. Other uses of the Past Continuous.
- We use the Past Continuous to emphasise the temporary character of the action:
e.g. When I learned to drive, I was living with my parents.
- We use the Past Continuous with verbs describing change and development:
e.g. She was feeling much better after the surgery.
- We use the Past Continuous to speak about something that happens surprisingly often and to complain about annoying habits (See Unit 2):
e.g. When the builders were here I was making them cups of tea all the time.
He was always making snide remarks about my cooking. (other possible adverbs are constantly, continually, forever).
- We can use either the Past Continuous or the Past Simple to talk about things we intended to do but didn’t:
e.g. We were meaning/ meant to call in and see you, but Jane wasn’t feeling well.
3. Complete the sentences using these pairs of verbs. Use the past simple in one space and the past continuous in the other.
come - show get—go hope - give live - spend look - see start - check in
1. Just as I was............... into the bath all the lights ……...... off.
2. I ……….to go away this weekend, but my boss.......... me some work that I
have to finish by Monday.
3. When I................... in Paris, I............ three hours a day travelling to and from work.
4. A friendly American couple........... chatting to him as he........ at the hotel
reception.
5. I bumped into Mary last week. She....... a lot better than when I last..... her.
6. My boss.................. into the office just as I........ everyone my holiday photos.
This time, use the same tense in both spaces.
add - taste go off - light not listen - explain push - run not watch - dream
8. The smoke alarm............... when he............. a cigarette underneath it.
9. I can't remember how to answer this question. I must confess that I………while the teacher it to us.
10. She.................. more salt to the soup, and then it... much better.
11. Although the television was on, I....... it. Instead I............ about my holidays.12. She.................. open the door and......... into the room.
4. Complete this text with either the past simple or the past continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Where alternatives are possible, think about any difference in meaning.
A. I 1) (buy) a new alarm clock the other day in Taylor's the jewellers, when I actually 2) (see) somebody shoplifting. I'd just finished paying for my clock and as I 3) (turn) round, an elderly woman 4) (slowly put) a silver plate into a bag that she 5) (carry). Then she 6) walk) over to another part of the shop and 7) (pick up) an expensive-looking watch a number of times. When she 8) (think) that nobody 9) (look), she 10) (drop) it into the bag. Before I 11) (have) a chance to tell the staff in the shop, she 12) (notice) that I 13) (watch) her and 14) (hurry) out. Unfortunately for her, two police officers 15) (walk) past just at that moment and she (16) (run) straight into them.
B. The sun 1) (shine) and the birds 2) (sing) as Mike 3) (drive) down the country lane. He 4) (smile), because he 5) (look forward) to the journey ahead. Mike 6) (enjoy) driving, especially when he 7) (go) somewhere new. Then, suddenly, the engine 8) (begin) to make a strange noise and the car 9) (stop) dead in the middle of the road. Mike 10) (try) to start it, but nothing 11) (happen). He 12) (sigh), then 13) (get out) of the car. As he 14) (push) the car to the side of the road, Mike 15) (start) to wish he had stayed at home.
C. John 1) (enter) his flat and 2) (close) the door. He 3) (hang up) his coat when he 4) (hear) a strange noise. A tap 5) (run) in the kitchen. He (6) (walk) into the kitchen and 7) (turn) it off. Then, he 8) (freeze). Someone 9) (stand) behind him. He 10) (take) a deep breath and 11) (turn) around. His flatmate, Steve, 12) (lean) in the doorway. 'You 13) (give) me a fright!' John exclaimed. Steve 14) (laugh) at him. John 15) (start) to laugh, too. 'I 16) (think) you had gone to London today,' he said. 'No,' 17) (reply) Steve. 'Unfortunately, I 18) (miss) the train.'II Past Simple vs. Past Perfect.NB We use the past perfect:
- for an action which is completed before a time in the past (we can include a specific time reference).
e.g. By the time the UN task force arrived, the rebel forces had taken the province.
- for repeated actions which took place before a time in the past.
e.g. The new owners found that the timbers had been patched up several times.
- to describe a state which existed before a past event (with state verbs instead of the past perfect continuous).
e.g. At the time of her trial last year Hinkley had been in prison for eight months.
- to describe the cause of a past event.
e.g. David didn’t join the band as he’d signed up with a rival label.
- with verbs such as hope, expect, want plan, think about, wish to describe past intentions which were unfulfilled.
e.g. They had hoped to get to the summit but Travers fell ill at base camp.
We can use the past perfect to make a sequence of events clear. We use the past perfect for the earlier action and the past simple for the later. Compare:
e.g. When we got back the babysitter went home (1 we got back, 2 the babysitter went home).
When we got back the babysitter had gone home (1 the babysitter went home, 2 we got back).
If the order of past events is clear from the context (for example, if time expressions make the order clear) we can use either the Past Perfect or the Past Simple:
e.g. After John had finished/ finished reading, he put out the light.
With before + past perfect the action in the past simple happens first.
e.g. I left university before I’d taken the final exams.
We can use it for a past action which prevented a later action from happening.
e.g. She sacked him before he’d had a chance to explain his behavior.
However, when we report what was originally said or thought in the Present Perfect only the Past Perfect is used:
e.g. “I have met him before” → I was sure that I had met him before (NOT …I met …).
5. Use the Past Simple or the Past Perfect to complete the sentences:
When I (1 go) to Paris last spring for a job interview, I (2 not be) there for five years. I (3 arrive) the evening before the interview, and (4 spend) a happy hour walking round thinking about the good times I (5 have) there as a student.
As I was strolling by the Seine, I suddenly (6 see) a familiar face - it was Nedjma, the woman I (7 share) a flat with when I was a student, and whose address I (8 lose) after leaving Paris. I could tell she (9 not see) me, so I (10 call) her name and she (11 look) up. As she (12 turn) towards me, I (13 realise) that she (14 have) an ugly scar on the side of her face. She (15 see) the shock in my eyes, and her hand (16 go) up to touch the scar; she (17 explain) that she (18 get) it when she was a journalist reporting on a war in Africa.
1 She (19 not be) uncomfortable telling me this; we (20 feel) as if the years (21 not pass), as if we (22 say) goodbye the week before. She (23 arrive) in Paris that morning, and she (24 have) a hospital appointment the next day. The doctors (25 think) that they could remove the scar, but she would have to stay in Paris for several months. Both of us (26 have) the idea at the same time: if I (27 get) the job, we could share a flat again. And we could start by having a coffee while we (28 begin) to tell one another everything that (29 happen) to us in the past five years.
6. Underline the correct answers. In some cases only one is correct, and in others both are correct.
2 As Geoff was introduced to Mrs Snape, he realised that he had met/ met her before.
3 During the previous week, I had been/ went to the gym every evening.
4 He denied that he had taken/ took the money from the office.
5 I didn't know the marking would take so long until I had read/ read the first couple of essays.
6 The boy told me that he had lost/ lost his train ticket and didn't know how he would get home.
7 At the conference, scientists reported that they had found/ found a cure for malaria.
8 The teacher guessed that some of the children had cheated/ cheated in the exam.
9 Thomas explained that he had gone/ went home early because he felt ill.
The waiter took my plate away before I had finished/ finished eating. 10 Jane didn't want any dinner. She had eaten/ ate already.
7. Complete this text with these verbs.
was (x2) explained didn't eat have gone had cooked hadn't eaten were went didn't lock have heard had reached hadn't locked
One of the four-year-olds in the reading group suddenly said, 'This is the silliest story I (l)…..ever……!' I (2)……in the middle of reading Goldilocks and the Three Bears to the group. We (3)……just the part in the story where Goldilocks goes into the bears' house and eats some of the food from bowls on the table.'Where (4).................. the bears?' he asked.
'Maybe outside or playing in the woods,' I suggested.
'And their house was wide open? They (5)... even……….the door before going out?'
'Well, in the old days, people (6)........ their doors.'
'And their food was on the table, but they (7).. it before they (8)……… outside?'
'Maybe they (9)................ it because it (10)............ too hot.'
'If you (11)................. that meal, you wouldn't (12)....... out and left it, would you?'
'Probably not, but it's just a story,' I (13)... rather weakly.
III Past Perfect vs. Past Perfect Continuous.
NB We use the past perfect continuous:
- to describe an ongoing situation or action which continued up to, or stopped just before a time in the past.
e.g. We had been working for over an hour before the auditors turned up.
- to explain a past result, e.g. a situation or an appearance.
e.g. The few survivors looked painfully thin. They had been living on meager rations since the accident. (=They looked thin because they had been living on meager rations).
- when we want to focus on duration.
e.g. The eager fans had been waiting in line for over six hours.
8. Complete the sentences with one of these verbs, using the same verb for each sentence in the pair. Use the past perfect continuous if possible; if not, use the past perfect.
apply carry fly smoke work
1. a She................... for the company since she left school, so I wasn't surprised when she took a new job in London.
b She....................... finally.............. her way up from trainee to a management position, and she celebrated her promotion with a big party.
2. a The avalanche............... them 500 metres down the mountain but no-one was hurt.
b She took a bottle from the bag she........... …..all the way from home.3. a Michael................. all his cigarettes and had to borrow some from Kate.
b By the smell in the room and his guilty expression I could tell that Alex………..
4. a We............... for visas early, but still hadn't got them by the week before the holiday.
b She.............. for jobs, without success, since leaving university.
5. a He............... all the way from New York to be at yesterday's meeting.
b When the plane was diverted, shortly after take-off, it ………… from London to Frankfurt.
NB. Remember that we don’t describe states with continuous tenses, and we use the Past Perfect, not the Past Perfect Continuous, even when we focus on the length of a situation up to a particular past time.
9. Choose the past perfect continuous form of the verb if appropriate; if not, use the past perfect.
1. Mrs Bishop................. to have children for years; then she finally became pregnant at the age of 45. (try)
2 This was the first time we had been to the castle, even though we ……… Edinburgh a few times before, (visit)
3 She bought her first watch at the age of 8. It ……… two pounds. (cost)
4 Meg James................... children's stories for 10 years when she got her first book published. (write)
5. For some time Mark ……….. about passing the exams and eventually decided to change the course he was taking, (worry)
6. My teacher was really annoyed with me. It was the third time I ………… late for school that week, (arrive)
7. I always...... it would be easy to get a job, and was disappointed to be rejected, (believe)
8. We about Sue when, to our amazement, she walked through the door, (talk)
10. Study this conversation extract. If the underlined verbs are correct, write “V”. If they are wrong, correct them using either the past perfect (active or passive) or past perfect continuous.
A: How was your weekend?
B: Not great, actually. I (1) 'd really been looking forward to a relaxing couple of days. But early on Saturday morning Mum phoned to say that Dad (2) had been taking ill.
A: Oh, no! What (3) had happened?
B: She (4) had just been hearing that he (5) had been flown by helicopter to hospital in Edinburgh from a village called Contin where he (6) had fished with my Uncle Mark.
A: And is he okay? What's wrong with him?
B: Well, Uncle Mark said that Dad (7) had been complaining of a bad headache most of yesterday, but he (8) hadn't been wanting to go back to the hotel and spoil the day. But then in the evening, just as they (9) had stopped fishing for the day, he (10) had been collapsing...
11. Complete this text with these verbs in the past perfect or past perfect continuous.
Be catch live plan take break have make remove worry
The telephone call from the police was a shock, but not a complete surprise. Molly (1) constantly about the old house lying empty during the two months since her mother went into hospital. She (2) to go round and check the empty place, but she (3) extra busy at work recently.According to the police, a homeless man (4) into the house. They (5) him one morning as he was leaving the building with one of her mother's large paintings. When Molly walked into the house, it was obvious that the man (6) there for quite a while. He (7) food from the cupboards and throwing empty tins and packages all over the floor. He (8) quite a mess. He (9) also several paintings from the walls. Molly decided not to tell her mother because she (10) already enough pain in recent weeks and really didn't need any more bad news.
IV Tense Revision.12. Choose the right tenses:
Last weekend, Cathy 1) (hire) a car and 2) (drive) to the seaside. When she 3) (arrive) the wind 4) (blow) and the sky 5) (be) cloudy. She 6) (get out) of the car and 7) (take) a walk along the seafront. Then she 8) (decide) to go for fish and chips at a nearby restaurant that she 9) (see) earlier and liked the look of. By the time she 10) (leave) the restaurant, it 11) (already/grow) dark. As she 12) (walk) to her car it 13) (begin) to rain. However, Cathy 14) (not/mind) because she 15) (have) a wonderful day.
The Little Girl and the Wolf
One afternoon a big wolf (1 wait) in a dark forest for a little girl to come along carrying a basket of food to her grandmother. Finally a little girl did come along and she (2 carry) a basket of food. 'Are you carrying that basket to your grandmother?' asked the wolf. The little girl said yes, she was. So the wolf (3 ask) her where her grandmother lived and the little girl (4 tell) him and he (5 disappear) into the wood.
When the little girl (6 open) the door of her grandmother's house she (7 see) that there was somebody in bed with a nightcap and nightgown on. She (8 approach) no nearer than twenty-five feet from the bed when she (9 see) that it was not her grandmother but the wolf, for even in a nightcap a wolf does not look in the least like anybody's grandmother. So the little girl (10 take) an automatic pistol out of her basket and (11 shoot) the wolf dead.Moral: It is not so easy to fool little girls nowadays as it used to be.
James Thurber: Fables for Our Time
Rioting students battle against police
May 7 (1968). In the last two days, Paris (12 see) the worst street-fighting since the Liberation in 1944. Up to 30,000 students, locked out of their own campus yesterday by the Sorbonne rector, Jean Roche, (13 fight) the tear gas of the riot police with barricades, bricks, paving stones and Molotov cocktails.
The trouble (14 ferment) for some time. On March 20, six students (15 arrest) after an anti-American demonstration; the next day, a mass sit-in at the Nanterre campus (16 begin). Last Friday, the police – whose alleged brutality is said to have sparked off the violence - forcibly evicted the students, who (17 lead) by Daniel Cohn-Bendit.
All day yesterday, the Latin Quarter (17 be) the arena for running street fights centred on the Boulevard St Germain. Chronicle of the 20th Century
13. Complete the two texts about World War I with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
The condition of Britain in 1917
The government also (1) (need) to ensure that Britain was fed. Under the Defence of the Realm Act it was able to take over land and turn it over to food production. In February 1917 it (2) (set up) the Women's Land Army to recruit women as farm workers. By then, however, the food supply in Britain (3) (became) desperate. German U-boats (4) (sink) one in every four British merchant ships and Britain had only six weeks' supply of wheat left. As food supplies (5) (run) short, so prices (6) (rise).Wages (7) (hardly rise) during the war because people were mostly prepared to sacrifice better pay to support the war effort, but prices were now almost double what they (8) (be) in 1914. Poorer people could not even afford basic supplies such as bread. Shops (9) (close) early each afternoon as they (10) (run out) of goods to sell.German reactions to the Treaty of Versailles 1919
The overall reaction of Germans was horror and outrage. They certainly (11) (not believe) they (12) (start) the war. They (13) (not even think) they (14) (lose) the war. In 1919 many Germans (15) (not really understand) how bad Germany's military situation (16) (be) at the end of the war in 1918. They believed that the German government (17) (simply agree) to a ceasefire, and that therefore Germany should have been at the Paris Peace Conference to negotiate peace. They were angry that their government was not represented at the talks and that the Allies (18) (force) them to accept a harsh treaty without any choice or even a comment. At first, the new government (19) (refuse) to sign the treaty and at one point it (20) (look) as though war might break out again. However, Ebert, the new German leader, was in an impossible position. Reluctantly, he (21) (agree) to accept the terms of the treaty and it (22) (sign) on 28 June 1919.
14. Underline the correct form.
1 When Dora went / had gone to pay for the petrol she was putting / had put in her car, she realized / was realizing that she lost/had lost her credit card.
2 While I was waiting / had waited for my meal to arrive, I saw /was seeing that the two men who had followed me into the restaurant were staring/ had been staring at me from a nearby table.
3 When I heard / was hearing the noise at the window, I knew / had known that someone tried / was trying to break into the house.
4 Maria didn't remember / wasn't remembering anything about the accident, except that she didn't drive / had not been driving too fast and in fact had almost stopped / was almost stopping before she reached the crossroads.
5 By the time the fire engines arrived / was arriving at the cottage, Tom and his neighbours already put out / had already put out the fire and were carrying / had been carrying furniture out of the blackened building.
6 'What did you do / were you doing in the High Street at that time of night, and why did you run away / had you run away when the officer told / was telling you to stop?' asked the lawyer.
7 While Sally painted / was painting the ceiling, she fell off / was falling off the ladder but luckily she didn't break / wasn't breaking any bones.
8 Our taxi to the airport didn't turn up / wasn't turning up on time, and so by the time we got / were getting to the check-in desk, the flight already closed / had already closed.
9 Marlowe walked slowly into the room. He didn't forget / hadn't forgotten his last visit to the house, when Miss LaPorte had fired / was firing two shots at him, so he had taken / was taking no chances this time.
10 Alice could see that the tall boy had / was having difficulty making himself understood, but she decided / was deciding not to help him. After all, nobody had helped /was helping her during her first days in this country!
15. Choose a novel or story, and select one or two pages. Make a list of the past tenses used on these pages. Are these the only tenses possible, or are others also acceptable?
15. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Read through the whole text before you begin as you may need to use passive forms and used to/ would in your answers.
THE TRUE STORY OF TREASURE ISLAND
Treasure Island is one of the best known and most loved children's adventure stories. It (1) (be) first published in 1883 but remains popular to this day. People (2) (think) that the story was solely the work of Stevenson's imagination, but recent research has uncovered the true origin of this thrilling tale of hidden treasure and bloodthirsty pirates.
Treasure Island's author, Robert Louis Stevenson, (3) (be) a Scotsman born in Edinburgh in 1850. Although he (4) (live) abroad for many years, in 1881 he returned to the land of his birth for a holiday. With him (5) (be) his American wife Fanny, whom he (6) (meet) five years earlier in France, and his stepchildren from Fanny's first marriage. The location of their holiday was Braemar in the rugged Scottish Highlands.
The family soon settled into a relaxing routine. Each morning Stevenson (7) (get up) early and take them out for long walks over the hills. They (8) (enjoy) this for several days when the weather suddenly took a turn for the worse. Trapped indoors by the heavy rain, Robert's twelve-year-old stepson, Lloyd, (9) (become) increasingly bored and restless. Desperate to keep the boy amused, Robert (10)........................ (get out) some drawing paper and asked the boy to do some painting.
After he (11) (paint) for several hours the boy (12) (return) to his stepfather with a beautiful coloured map of a tropical island. Robert noticed that his stepson (13) (draw) a large cross in the middle of the island. 'What's that?' he asked. 'That's the buried treasure,' said the boy. The thirty-one-year-old author suddenly had a flash of inspiration. He (14) (recently ask) to contribute stories to a children's magazine published by his friend W E Henley and he (15) (begin) to see the germ of an adventure story in the boy's picture. "While the rain (16) (beat down) on the roof of his rented holiday cottage the author (17) (sit down) by the fire to write a story. He would make the hero a twelve-year-old boy, just like his own stepson. But who would be the villain of the piece?
For the last four years Henley (18) (publish) Robert's stories in his magazine, and the two had become good friends. But there was something unusual about Henley; as a young man one of his legs (19)..................... (amputate) and he walked around with the aid of an artificial wooden leg Robert (20) (always want) to include such character in a story and thus Long John Silver, the pirate with a wooden leg, was born.
So, thanks to a rainy September in Scotland, a publisher with a wooden leg, and the inventiveness of a twelve-year-old American boy, we have one of the greatest adventure stories in the English language.
17. In the following text there are 11 mistakes in the use of past forms, used to or would. Find the mistakes and correct them. The first mistake is found for you.
Anne Frank
Anne Frank was a Jewish girl who was living with her family in Amsterdam when the Germans were invading Holland in 1940. The German authorities introduced harsh anti-Jewish laws and started to deport Jews to concentration camps in Eastern Europe. In July 1942 Anne's father did hear a rumour that he was going to be arrested by the police and the family resolved to find a hiding place. They moved into an attic above Mr Frank's office and build a bookcase to disguise the entrance to the secret apartment. Friends would bring food to the family each morning, and they use to keep up to date with the news by listening to the BBC on a small radio. Anne would have no friends her own age, so she confided her feelings to a diary. In August another Jewish family joined the Franks with their sixteen-year-old son Peter. Peter was telling Anne that the Germans had been sending Jews to concentration camps and killing them. Anne and Peter were becoming very fond of each other in the cramped conditions of the secret apartment and had helped each other with their lessons. But somebody had given away the family's secret. The German police had been watched the hiding place for several days and on August 14th 1944 they burst in and arrested all the occupants. The Germans were sending Anne to the Belsen concentration camp and she was killed in February or March 1945, only a month or six weeks before the British army arrived. Anne's father was taken to Auschwitz and survived the war. He found Anne's diary and had published it in 1947.
2. LIFE WITHOUT PHRASAL VERBS
This text was deliberately written without any phrasal verbs. What is your impression of it? Rewrite the text trying to use phrasal verbs wherever possible (you can find a possible solution at the end of the unit).
I awakened when my alarm clock rang at 7.15. I didn't in fact arise until 7.30. I
dressed myself in my dressing gown, descended the stairs and allowed the cat to enter the house. Then I raised the receiver of the telephone and called work. I asked the switchboard operator to pass me my boss. She asked me to wait a minute as the line was busy. When I was connected, I told my boss that I wouldn't be going to work as I wasn't well She told me not to come to work for a few days.
3. Complete the sentences with the corresponding prepositions.
1. My dad was always really good at making ___ stories.
2. The black lettering really stands ___ on that orange background.
I'm afraid we've just run a rabbit ___.
Investigators needed several months to work ___ that a fraud had been committed.
She hasn't come ____ from the anaesthetic yet.
She'd fallen ___ ___ her boyfriend over his ex-girlfriend.
Passengers are requested to check ___ two hours before the flight.
She thinks they look ____ ____ her because she didn't go to university.
I hope it clears ___ in time for the picnic.
Moving parts in engines wear ___ much more quickly than stationary parts.
Kate's already agreed, but it's going to be harder persuading Mike to go ___ ___ it.
Their dog had to be put to sleep after it went ___ the postwoman.
A car pulled right ___ in front of me.
My patience is beginning to run ___.
This bacon smells a bit funny - do you think it's gone ___?
We're getting ___ much better now that we don't live together.
Workers are threatening to walk ___.
We broke ___ ___ the holidays in June.
What a lovely dress - why don't you try it ___ for size?
I can get ___ a lot more work when I'm on my own.
Sort ___ any clothes you want to throw away and give them to me.

TEST YOURSELF.
1. Grammar. Choose the correct answer.
1 'Were you expecting James and Paul to stay fordinner?''No, but I ........ a lot of food, so it didn't matter.'A had prepared В was preparing С had been preparing
2 Tony has been singing for years, hasn't he?'
'Yes. He.......... his first record when he was sixteen.'A made В was making С had made
3 There was a power cut last night.'
'I know. I......... some paperwork when the lights
went out.'
A had been doing В was doing С had done
4 'Did you see Paul Simon in concert?''No. I was hoping to get tickets, but they 'A had sold out В sold out С were selling out
5 The restaurant was packed last night.'
'Yes. Luckily, I..... a table in advance.'
A was booking В had booked С had been booking
6 'Did you watch the film yesterday?''No. It......... by the time we got home.'
A finished В was finishing С had finished
7 'Did you stay up late last night?''No. I.......... all day, so I went to bed early.'A had been working В worked С was working
8 'Did you enjoy your holiday?''Yes. We......... most of our time on the beach.'A had spent В were spending С spent
9 'Kim looked tired this morning.''I know. She....... all night long.'A studied В had studied С had been studying
10 'So what happened?''We ........... through the woods when we heard a
gunshot.'
A had walked В walked С were walking
2. Vocab. Translate parts of the following sentences using the active vocabulary.
1. It is very important that everyone knows how (вызывать скорую).
2. Now the sights and sounds of this ceremony are (транслируются) instantaneously to billions around the world.
3. Pirate DVDs, fake designer clothing and counterfeit computer games were all found on market stalls in Hounslow, and trading standards officers warned consumers to (остерегаться) merchandise at cheap prices.
4. We wanted to (избавиться от него), but he was very much attached to us, and wouldn't go.
5. The happiness he gives, is quite as great as if it (стоило целое состояние).
6. We (пошли искупаться) in the in-house hot bath before setting off to Nagano City.
7. General Motors Co. generated $1 billion (наличными) last year after leaving bankruptcy in July as Chief Executive Officer Ed Whitacre cut half of the U.S. brands and shuffled management to push for a profit in 2010
8. Those who know each other well are often the best candidates to be participants in (розыгрышах).
9. (Документальное кино) is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality.
10. Sons who have fond (детские воспоминания) of their fathers are more likely to be emotionally stable in the face of day-to-day stresses.
White had a habit of playing his trumpet (с самого утра), which really irritated his neighbors
I want more for my son than a career running a photocopying machine, and (представляешь?) - so does my son.
I worked hard to (заработать деньги) for college, and then decided not to go
For the first time Martin's glorious sleep was interrupted by (бессонницей), and he tossed through long, restless nights.
There's been a (переворот) in one of the African republics.
Not only were they exceeding the speed limit but their purpose in exceeding that speed limit was to (ехать наперегонки).
Five countries today signed a number of international conventions (связанных с) human rights on the sidelines of the General Assembly’s annual high-level debate.
If you (будете фотографировать) of the Sun at the same time each day, would it remain in the same position?
The European Union makes a big effort to (поддерживать связь с) its citizens and to keep them informed.
(Ты слышал анекдот про) the 'Responsible Lenders'?
Can you recall the last time you had to (иметь дело с) a negative or difficult person?
ACTIVE VOCABULARY.p. 30 (learn the phrasal verbs in exercise 1), Have you heard the one about...?
R4.1 yacht, go for a drive (a walk, a dip, a ride etc.), lean smth against smth, take a picture, in cash, crew, sail in calm waters, eventually, bug, spread (insecticide) over, (…$) worth of damage, get rid of
p. 31 call an ambulance, help smb to their feet
p. 32 (learn the words and expressions to speak about books and reading), Where is the story set?, supernatural, insomnia, dozens of, be related to, childhood memories, landowner, deal with, battle for (control of the country), a bloody coup ([ku:])
p. 33 shepherd, turn (lead) into (gold)
p. play practical jokes on smb, beware of, do one’s best, fool smb, an ad, rotate, drip, a supermarket chain, genetically engineered, whistle, hoax, documentary, harvest, on the news, broadcast
p. 35 convert, call off
R4.4 raise money, race each other (down the street), a flatmate, do smth first thing in the morning, a payphone, a stunt, the local council, hilarious, I bet…, be in touch with smbp. 36 (study the informal sentences for exaggerating in ex. 1)
R4.5 turn up, cancel (the order), cost a fortune, on the Internet, install software, drive smb crazy, stay out of trouble, ask smb round, Guess what?

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