UNIT 2. P.2

“A society needs famous people; the question is whom it chooses for that role.
Any criticism of its choice is by implication a criticism of that society.”  Max FrischLEAD IN
What names come up to your mind when you think of telecoms history? Whom do you consider to be the greatest personality in telecommunications area?
Look at the following pictures and try to guess what scientists are depicted on them. What can you tell about these people?
a) b) c)
e) f)
g) h)
j) k) l)
a) Examine the list of the famous people in the world history. How are they connected with telecoms? What do you know about these scientists? Match the following personalities with the telecom devices or equipment they invented.
1 Alexander Graham Bell a) semaphore
2 Alexander Bain b) satellite
3 Chappe brothers c) radio receiver
4 Sergey Korolev d) fax
5 Alexander Popov e) telegraph
6 Charles Babbage f) telephone
7 Samuel Morse g) the 1st general-purpose computing device
8 Konrad Zuseh) the 1st electrical binary programmable computer
9 Tim Berners-Lee i) photograph, motion picture camera, light bulb
10 Thomas Alva Edison j) The WWW
b) What other great inventors do you know? Try to find some interesting facts about famous people in telecoms history and share this information with your group mates.
1. Study the following words in the box. Make sure you know them. Try to explain each notion.
recognition complicated equal hardware
to conceive set experience software
computing essential to boot up to draw up
2. Read the text and translate it into Ukrainian.
Who stands behind computers?
3623310110680500Almost everyone uses computers these days for everything from shopping to working to playing games. But have you ever stopped to think about where all this amazing technology came from? Who invented it all? Well, behind every company, programming language or piece of software, there is a person - or sometimes a team of people - who turned ideas into reality. We've all heard of Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft and one of the richest men in history. Equally famous is Steve Jobs, the person who, along with Steve Wozniak, started Apple computers. However, there are hundreds of other people, from early pioneers to later geniuses, who aren't as well known but who deserve recognition for the work they did in advancing the world of computing.
22860101155500One of the first people to conceive of computers was Charles Babbage, an English mathematician and analytical philosopher who drew up plans for the first programmable computer called the Difference Engine. George Boole came up with a way of describing logical relations using mathematical symbols - now called Boolean logic - that is the basis of all modern computer processes. Vannevar Bush first proposed an idea in 1945 he called 'memex', which we now know as 'hypertext'. Another notable figure in early computing was Alan Mathison Turing, an Englishman known as the "father of computer science". He invented the Turing Test, which is a way to find out if a computer is acting like a machine or a human.
As computing became more complicated, people needed a way to make it easier to tell computers what to do. In other words, they needed ways to program the computers. These computer instruction systems became known as computer, or programming languages. FORTRAN, the first widely used high-level programming language, was invented by an American computer scientist, John Warener Backus. Other notable North American inventors of programming languages include Dennis Ritchie, author of the C programming language, and Canadian James Gosling, known as the father of Java. One of the uses of programming languages is to create operating systems, which are essentially sets of instructions that allow computers to function. The most widely-used operating system in the world is Microsoft Windows, but there are other powerful ones that exist, such as Unix, created by Ken Thompson and his team at AT&T in 1969, and Linux, written by Linus Torvalds in 1991.
Microsoft, of course, is the largest software company in the world, but there is another company, Intel, that is equally important when it comes to hardware. Intel was started by several people who are now legends in the computer world, including Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore. Other notable is Tim Berners-Lee, the man who created the basis for the World Wide Web.
Through their creativity and hard work, all of these people contributed to shaping what we now experience as Information and Computer Technology. Every time you boot up a computer, play a video game or surf the Internet, try to remember the individuals who made these wonders possible.
3. Answer the following questions:
1. What famous people are mentioned in the text?
2. Who created the first programmable computer?
3. What is George Boole famous for?
4. Why there was a need to create programming language?
5. What IT companies are mentioned in the text? What do you know about these companies4. Match the word or word combination with its definition.
1 recognition a) the set of software that controls the overall operation of a computer system
2 operating system b) the programs and other operating information used by a computer
3 to experience c) consisting of many interconnecting parts or elements; intricate
4 software d) having great strength
5 hardware e) appreciation or acclaim for an achievement, service, or ability
6 complicated f) the physical components of a computer or other electronic system
7 powerful g) to encounter or undergo
5. Find in the text English equivalents to these words and word combinations:
Дивовижна технологія; мова програмування; програмне забезпечення; перетворити ідеї на реальність; апаратне забезпечення; заслуговувати визнання; складати плани; логічні зв’язки; математичні символи; визначна постать; обчислення стало більш складне; операційна система.
6. Make up word combinations and translate them into Ukrainian. Create your own sentences with these combinations.
programming symbols
programmable system
mathematical figure
notable company
operating language
software computer
Look through the words in a frame. Translate them and fill in the gaps in the article below.
setbacksfundamentalaccessibleunrealizedsubmissionengineercurrentlyalteredjoinedannouncedavailablemediumSir Tim Berners-Lee
Web Inventor and Founding Director of the World Wide Web Foundation
Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989 while working as a software ___________ (1) at the CERN, physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland. Tim understood the ___________ (2) potential of millions of computers connected together through the Internet.
348234095821500Tim documented what was to become the World Wide Web with the ___________ (3) of a proposal specifying a set of technologies that would make the Internet truly ___________ (4) and useful to people. Despite initial ___________ (5) and with perseverance, by October of 1990, he had specified the three ___________ (6) technologies that remain the foundation of today’s Web (and which you may have seen appear on parts of your Web browser): HTML, URI, and HTTP. He also wrote the first Web page editor/browser (“WorldWideWeb”) and the first Web server (“httpd“). By the end of 1990, the first Web page was served. By 1991, people outside of CERN ___________ (7) the new Web community, and in April 1993, CERN ___________ (8) that the World Wide Web technology would be ___________ (9) for anyone to use on a royalty-free basis. Since that time, the Web has changed the world, arguably becoming the most powerful communication ___________ (10) the world has ever known. Whereas only roughly one-third of the people on the planet are ___________ (11) using the Web (and the Web Foundation aims to accelerate this growth substantially), the Web has fundamentally ___________ (12) the way we teach and learn, buy and sell, inform and are informed, agree and disagree, share and collaborate, meet and love, and tackle problems ranging from putting food on our tables to curing cancer.‬‬a. Look through the idioms and sayings describing people. Try to explain each one. Do you know any Ukrainian equivalents to them?
bad egg
behind the times
big cheese
born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth
fat cat
eager beaver
mouse potato
straight as an arrow
whiz kid
b. Read the definitions to the idioms listed above. Match the definitions with these idioms.
1) A person who has old-fashioned ideas and does not keep up with modern life in general.
2) A person who is born into a very rich family.
3) A rich and powerful person hat you disapprove of the way they use their money or power.
4) This term refers to a person who spends a lot of time in front of the computer.
5) Someone, usually young, who is very talented and successful at doing something.
6) Someone who is an untrustworthy person often involved in trouble.
7) Someone who is a morally upright person who is extremely honest.
8) A person who is hardworking and enthusiastic, sometimes considered overzealous.
9) This expression refers to a person who has a lot of power and influence in an organization
c. Discuss with your group mates:
1) Could you match the listed above idioms with the famous personalities from the telecom field?
2) Is there any idiom which can describe your personality?
Write a short report about the famous personality from the telecom history who inspires you.

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